DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Factors Influencing the Intention for Continuous Use of Augmented Reality Games: Immersion as a Mediating Variable

증강현실(Augmented Reality)게임 지속사용의도에 영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 연구: 몰입감을 매개변수로

  • Received : 2021.07.28
  • Accepted : 2021.10.26
  • Published : 2021.12.31

Abstract

This study is about Augmented Reality Game (AR Game) applied to Pokemon Go, which has recently been a sensational game. We focused on and analyzed the intention for continuous use as a dependent variable. We made hypotheses through previous studies and used spatial presence, perceived interactivity, perceived pleasure, and sickness as independent variables. Immersion was set up as a mediating variable. We conducted the study using 198 data, which people who experienced AR games responded. The results were as follows. First, spatial presence and perceived pleasure were found to have a significant effect on immersion, as in previous studies. Second, the relationship between sickness and immersion, which were shown to have a negative relationship in previous studies, we found that variables had a positive relationship unlike previous studies and rejected the hypothesis. Third, perceived interactivity, which is one of the crucial variables to affect the intention for continuous use, we found not to have a significant relationship among perceived interactivity, immersion, and the intention for continuous use. This result is opposite from previous studies, and further research on this issue is expected. We conducted this study with an individual user's view on immersion and the intention for continuous use rather than focusing on technical or political topics. Besides, this study has a significance that drew different results from previous studies and explored people who relish AR games with the characteristics of personal variables.

Keywords

References

  1. Bae, J. E. and Kim, S. I., "A Development Plan of Serious Game Based on Virtual Reality Through the Trend Analysis on Internal/External Game Industry", Journal of Digital Design, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2014, pp. 737-748. https://doi.org/10.17280/jdd.2014.14.3.073
  2. Bae, S. J. and Kwon, O. B., "Impact of Presence, Spatial Ability, and Esthetics on the Continuance Intention of Use of Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality", Korean Business Education Review, Vol. 33, No. 4, 2018, pp. 355-386. https://doi.org/10.23839/kabe.2018.33.4.355
  3. Barfield, W., Zeltzer, D., Sheridan, T., and Slater, M., "Presence and performance within virtual environments", Virtual Environments and Advanced Interface Design, 1995, pp. 473-513.
  4. Bhattacherjee, A., "Understanding Information Systems Continuance: An Expectation-Confirmation Model", MIS Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 3, 2001, pp. 351-370. https://doi.org/10.2307/3250921
  5. Chae, J. M., "The Difference of the Extended TAM in Mobile Fashion Shopping according to Consumer's Purchase Frequency", Journal of Fashion Design, Vol. 16, No. 3, 2016, pp. 173-188.
  6. Chang, H. J., "Study on the Influence of VR Characteristics on User Satisfaction and Intention to Use Continuously - Focusing on VR Presence, User Characteristics, and VR Sickness", Graduate School of Public and Information Technology, Seoul National University of Science and Technology
  7. Chang, Y. P. and Zhu, D. H., "The role of perceived social capital and flow experience in building users' continuance intention to social networking sites in China", Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2012, pp. 995-1001. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.01.001
  8. Cho, S. H., "A Study on the Relationship between Game, Flow and Gamer Satisfaction of Game as a Leisure Activity: Focusing on Pokemon Go", International Journal of Tourism Management and Science, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2017, pp. 43-61
  9. Choi, B. S., Kim, S. C., Jeong, Y. H., and Lee, W. D., "Use Cases and Metadata Design for Integration of Broadcasting Service with Augmented Reality", The Korean Society of Broad Engineers Conference, Vol. 7, 2012.
  10. Choi, J. W., Seok, J. H., Hwang, I. H. and Park, K. J., "Augmented Reality World on the future direction of research", KSDS Conference Proceeding, pp. 190-191, 2010.
  11. Choi, Y., "Effects of The Characteristics of Augmented Reality Game, Leisure Benefit and Life Satisfaction: Focusing on Pokemon Go", Graduate School, Kyunggi University, 2020.
  12. Chung, B. G. and Dong, H. L., "Influential Factors on Technology Acceptance of Augmented Reality(AR)", Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2019, pp. 153-168. https://doi.org/10.16972/apjbve.14.3.201906.153
  13. Csikszentmihalyi, M., "Beyond Boredom and Anxiety: Experiencing Flow in Work and Play", Jossey-Bass, 2003.
  14. Csikszentmihalyi, M., "Beyond Boredom and Anxiety", Washington: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1975.
  15. Csikszentmihalyi, M., "Flow: The psychology of optimal experience", New York: Harper & Row, 1990.
  16. Davis F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., and Warshaw, P. R., "Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation to use computers in the work place", Journal of applied social psychology, Vol. 22, No. 14, 1992, pp. 1111-1132. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1992.tb00945.x
  17. Davis, F. D., "Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology," MIS Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1989, pp. 319-340. https://doi.org/10.2307/249008
  18. Davis, S., Nesbitt, K. and Nalivaiko, E., "Comparing the onset of cybersickness using the Oculus Rift and two virtual roller coasters" Proceedings of the 11th Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment, 2015, pp. 3-14.
  19. Heo, O. and Chung, D. H., "Influence of Augmented Reality Advertising on Advertising Attitude, Brand Attitude, and Purchase Intention through Mediator Presence", Advertising Research, Vol. 90, 2011, pp. 71-98.
  20. Holbrook, M. B., "The nature of customer value: An axiology of services in the consumption experience. Service quality", New directions in theory and practice, Vol. 21, 1994, pp. 21-71. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452229102.n2
  21. Jackson, S. A. and Marsh, H. W., "Development and Validation of a Scale to Measure Optimal Experience: The flow state scale", Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Vol. 18, 1996, pp. 17-35. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.18.1.17
  22. Jackson, S. A. and Marsh, H., "Development and validation of a scale to measure optimal experience: The Flow State Scale", Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1996, pp. 17-35. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.18.1.17
  23. Jang, C. H., "A Study of Factors Affecting Continuous Intentions of Social Network Games -focus on smart device users", The Graduate School of Sejong University, 2013.
  24. Jang, E. Y., "The Effects of Flow Experience according to Trick Eye Museum Experience using an AR App on User Satisfaction: Focused on the Experience Economy Theory by Pine and Gilmore", Graduate School of Advertising & Public Relations, Hongik University, 2019.
  25. Jeong, D. Y., "The Change of Future from Augmented Reality", SERI Management Note, Samsung Economic Research Institute, 2010, Vol. 46. (in Korean)
  26. Jo, J. W. and Sung, J. Y., "Augmented Reality Advertisement Effect based on the Mediating role of Diagnosticity and Psychological Distance", The Korean Journal of Advertising, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2014, pp. 203-221. https://doi.org/10.14377/KJA.2014.1.15.203
  27. Joo, E. R. and Chung, J. H., "A Study on the mobile Augmented reality of game Pokemon Go", Journal of Digital Convergence, Vol. 17, No. 12, 2019, pp. 473-480. https://doi.org/10.14400/JDC.2019.17.12.473
  28. Joo, H. W. and Yoon, M. Y., "A Study on the Difference between Experience of Augmented Reality Beauty Application and Cosmetic Purchasing Behavior", Journal of The Korean Society of Cosmetology, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2021, pp. 675-687. https://doi.org/10.52660/JKSC.2021.27.3.675
  29. Joo, Y. J., Chung, A. K., Kang, J. J., and Jung, B. K., "Identification of the Structural Relationship between Presence, Service Quality, Flow and Learning Satisfaction in Mobile Learning", The journal of the institute of internet, broadcasting and communication, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2015, pp. 169-175. https://doi.org/10.7236/JIIBC.2015.15.4.169
  30. Jun, C. H., "Study on the Influence of VR Characteristics on User Satisfaction and Intention to Use Continuously - Focusing on VR Presence, User Characteristics, and VR Sickness", Graduate School, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, 2018.
  31. Jung, S. A. and Kim, H. Y., "A Study on the Production Plan for Reducing Cybersickness in Virtual Reality Game", Journal of the Korea Society of Digital Industry and Information Management, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2017, pp. 113-123. https://doi.org/10.17662/KSDIM.2017.13.1.113
  32. Kang, M. J., "Users as the Subject of Interaction Design: A Study of AR Teaching Material Design Based on Reception Theory", Visual Culture, Vol. 23, 2013, pp. 199-232.
  33. Kaufmann, H. and Schmalstieg, D., "Mathematics and geometry education with collaborative augmented reality", Computers & graphics, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2003, pp. 339-345. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0097-8493(03)00028-1
  34. Kennedy, R. S., Drexler, J. M. Compton, D. E., Stanney, K. M., Lanham, D. S. and Harm, D. L. "Configural scoring of simulator sickness, cybersickness and spatial involvement adaptation syndrome: Similarities and differences," Virtual and Adaptive Environments: Applications, implications, and human performance issues, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003, pp. 247-278.
  35. Kerlinger, F. N.,and Lee, H. B., "Foundations of Behavioral Research (4th ed.)", Orlando, FL: Harcourt College Publishers, 2000.
  36. Kim, D. J., "An Empirical Study on User Satisfaction and the Influencing Factors for Continuous Usage of Social Network Service", Graduate School, Chungang University, 2011.
  37. Kim, D. S., Park, H. J., and Jeon, J. C., "Content Service Technology based Mobile Augmented Reality"(in Korean), Review of Korean society for Internet Information, Vol, No. 1, 2010, pp. 24-32.
  38. Kim, H. G., "The Mediating Effect of Trust in Supervisors in the Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Affective Organizational Commitment", Korean Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 52, No. 3, 2014, pp. 91-116.
  39. Kim, H. K., Park, J. H., Kim, Y. S., and Choi, J. G., "The Effect of Augmented Reality-based Fashion Product Application on Intention to Use", Journal of Information Technology Services, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2020, pp. 80-102.
  40. Kim, J. and Park, J., "Cyber Sickness mitigation measures with non-pharmacological methods," The HCI Society of Korea, Vol. 1, 2016, pp. 161-163.
  41. Kim, J. E. and Lee, H. J., "Development Trends of Mobile Augmented Reality Game Platform and User Interface", Journal of Korea Game Society, Vol. 17, No. 6, 2017 pp. 7-17. https://doi.org/10.7583/JKGS.2017.17.6.7
  42. Kim, J. H. and Kang, H. M., "A Causal Model of the Sense of Presence and the Flow Level of Cyber Sport Games", Korean Society for the Sociology Sport, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2008, pp. 579-591. https://doi.org/10.22173/jksss.2008.21.3.579
  43. Kim, K. H. and Seo, B. J., "A Study on Immersion and Presence of VR Karaoke Room Implementations in Mobile HMD Environments", Journal of Korea Game Society, Vol. 17, No. 6, 2017, pp. 19-28. https://doi.org/10.7583/JKGS.2017.17.6.28
  44. Kim, K. Y. and Jung, U., "A Study on the Impact of Perceived Characteristics of Augmented Reality(AR) Services on User Satisfaction and Intention to Use", Global Business Administration Review, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2020, pp. 187-211. https://doi.org/10.38115/asgba.2020.17.2.187
  45. Kim, M. H., "A Study on the Degree of User's Freedom in the Sandbox Game", Graduate School, Soongsil University, 2014.
  46. Kim, M. Y., Ahn, K. S., and Choi, W. S., "The Comparison of the learning achievement and learning satisfaction Between in the Blended Class and Online Class and Offline Class", Journal of Korean Institute of Industiral Educators, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2005, pp. 106-119.
  47. Kim, S. S., "A Study of the Factors Affecting Continuous Usage Intention of Data Driven Artificial Intelligence Product Service System", Graduate School of Soongsil University, 2019.
  48. Kim, S. Y. and Joo, Y. H., "Perceived Interactivity and Web site Loyalty: On the Role of Flow as a Mediating Variable", Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. 12, No. 4, 2004, pp. 185-208.
  49. Kim, T. and Biocca, F., "Telepresence via Television: Two Dimensions of Telepresence May Have Different Connections to Memory and Persuasion", Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1997.
  50. Kim, W. S., Yun, J. S., Lim, C., and Min, B. C., "An Analysis of The Repetitive Sound Effects Influencing on Game User's Flow", The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2010, pp. 149-156.
  51. Kim, Y. S., "The Effect of the Attributes of Ubiquitous and Perceived Interactivity on Professional Sports Team Loyalty", Graduate School of Physical Education, Kyung Hee University, 2009.
  52. Ko, Y. S., "A study on the influence of personal characteristics by operation actions in virtual reality on cyber motion sickness", The Graduate School of Hanyang University, 2020.
  53. Kwon, O. H., "A Study on Game Oriented Virtual World and Socially Virtual World in Metarverse: Focused on the Flow Theory", The Graduate School of Design, Konkuk University, 2012.
  54. Lee, H. J., Cha, S. A., and Kwon, H. N., "Study on the Effect of Augmented Reality Contents-Based Instruction for Adult Learners on Academic Achievement, Interest and Flow", The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2016, pp. 424-437. https://doi.org/10.5392/JKCA.2016.16.01.424
  55. Lee, J. P., "Transition to Immersive Content and Market Trends", Weekly ICT Trends, Vol. 1969, 2020, pp. 2-14. (in Korean)
  56. Lee, J. S., "VR Theme Park Applicated of Virtual Reality in the view of Play Instinct", Graduate School of Mass Communication, Sogang University, 2000.
  57. Lee, J. S., Sim, H. A., Kim, K. Y., and Lee, K. S., "Effects of reality based science Learning program on Learning motivation and achievement: Development and implementation of elementary school Level's science Learning program applied the Keller's ARCS model", Theory and practice of Education, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2010, pp. 99-121.
  58. Lee, J. S., Yang, S. H., and Song, B. W., "Study on the Factors Affecting the Intention to Use Real-time Video Conferencing Using Extended Technology Acceptance Model", The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2021, pp. 292-310. https://doi.org/10.5392/JKCA.2021.21.01.292
  59. Lee, K. H., "The E-Learning for Practice Training Using Augmented Reality in the College Education", Cartoon and Animation Studies, Vol. 40, 2015, pp. 443-476. https://doi.org/10.7230/KOSCAS.2015.40.443
  60. Lee, S. B., Lee, Y. K., and Park, C. U., "The Impact of SNG Characteristics Through Flow and Satisfaction on Stickiness", The Journal of Culture Policy, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2017, pp. 138-161. https://doi.org/10.16937/jcp.31.2.201708.138
  61. Lee, S. C., Kim, N. H., and Seo, Y. H., "The Effect of Flow and Addiction upon Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty in Online Games", Korean Management Review, Vol. 32, No. 5, 2003, pp. 1479-1501.
  62. Lee, S. H., "The Effects Ubiquitous Attributes of Mobile Contents on Perceived Interactivity and Behavioral Outcome", The Graduate School of Seoul National University, 2006.
  63. Lombard, M. and Jennifer, S., "Interactive advertising and presence: A framework", Journal of Interactive Advertising, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2001, pp. 56-65. https://doi.org/10.1080/15252019.2001.10722051
  64. MacCallum, R. C., Widaman, K. F., Preacher, K. J., and Hong, S., "Sample size in factor analysis: The role of model error", Multivariate Behavioral Research, Vol. 36, No. 4, 2001, pp. 611-637. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327906MBR3604_06
  65. MacCallum, R. C., Widaman, K. F., Zhang, S., and Hong, S., "Sample size in factor analysis", Psychological Methods, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1999, pp. 84-99. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.4.1.84
  66. Ministry of Science and ICT, "International Digital Content Market Research", 2018.
  67. Na, J. Y. and Wui, M. Y., "A study on the Intention of Using VR Games: Focusing on Technology Acceptance Model(TAM)", Journal of Korea Game Society, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2019, pp. 53-64. https://doi.org/10.7583/JKGS.2019.19.3.53
  68. Nam, H. W., "The Trend of Standard and Test Certification Technology - Development Trend of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Game Technology (in Korean)", TTA Journal, No. 167, 2016, pp. 83-88.
  69. Nam, S. S., Yu, H. S., and Shin, D. H., "User Experience in Virtual Reality Games: The Effect of Presence on Enjoyment", Korean Telecommunications Policy Review, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2017, pp. 85-125.
  70. Nam, S. T. and Jin, C. Y., "Factors Influencing on Continuous Usage Intention of Smartphone Based on the TAM (Technology Acceptance Model)", Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, Vol. 21, No. 11, 2017, pp. 2076-2082. https://doi.org/10.6109/JKIICE.2017.21.11.2076
  71. Newhagen, J. E. and Sheizaf, R., "Why Communication Researchers Should Study the Internet: A Dialogue", Journal of Computer Mediated Communication. Vol. 1, No. 4, 1995, pp. 2-13.
  72. Park, J. H. and Kim, H., "Research on GUI(Graphic User Interface) Design Styles in Mixed Reality Service: Focusing on the Way to Distinguish between Reality and Virtual Object", Journal of the Korean Society Design Culture, Vol. 23, No. 2, 2017, pp. 271-282. https://doi.org/10.18208/ksdc.2017.23.2.271
  73. Park, J. H., Kim, M. J., and Oh, H. S., "When Silence is Golden: The Effects of Prosocial Silence on Generalized SelfEfficacy and Leader-Member Exchange", Korean Management Review, Vol. 50, No. 2, 2021, pp. 405-437. https://doi.org/10.17287/kmr.2021.50.2.405
  74. Park, J. M. and Noh, G. Y., "The Effects of Interactivity on User Experience and Intention to use in Mobile Fitness App Game", Journal of Korea Game Society, Vol. 15 No. 6, 2015, pp. 17-28. https://doi.org/10.7583/JKGS.2015.15.6.17
  75. Park, W. W., Go, D. W., and Yun, E., "Improving causality: The significance of control variable, phenomena, and recommendations", Seoul Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol. 21, 2010, pp. 1-49.
  76. Park, Y. and Kim, Y., "The Structural Relationships Among Factors Affecting the Usage of Social Network Service: Focusing on the Technology Acceptance Model(TAM) and the Flow", Journal of Information Technology Services, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2012, pp. 247-272. https://doi.org/10.9716/KITS.2012.11.1.247
  77. Pyo, M. Seok, "A Study on the Effect of Eye Blink Rate by VR Contents Viewing: Focused on Presence and Sickness", The Graduate School, Kwangwoon University, 2019.
  78. Qiao, R. and Han, D. S., "A Study on the Reuse Intention of Virtual Reality(VR) Content Using Technology Acceptance Model", Journal of Korea Game Society, Vol. 19, No. 5, 2019, pp. 115-131. https://doi.org/10.7583/JKGS.2019.19.5.115
  79. Rebenitsch, L. and Owen, C., "Individual variation in susceptibility to cybersickness", ACM symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, 2014, pp. 309-317.
  80. Seong, B. S., "The Influence of the Amusing Factors on Commitment and Satisfaction", Journal of The Korean Society for Computer Game, Vol. 25, No. 3, 2012, pp. 139-147.
  81. Shen, X., "The Influence of Affordance of Mobile Augmented Reality Games on User Experience, Flow and Satisfaction", The Graduate School Chung-Ang University, 2018.
  82. Shin, D. H. and Shin, Y. J., "Why do peopleplay social network games?", Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 27, 2011, pp. 852-861. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.11.010
  83. Shin, S. K. and Park, J. Y., "A Study on the Augmented Reality Game Motivation Influences in Game Flow: Focusing on Pokemon Go", Information Society & Media, Vol. 18, No. 3, 2017, pp. 141-171.
  84. Shin, S. K., "A Study on the Augmented Reality Game Use Influences in Game Flow: Focusing on Pokemon Go", The Graduate School of Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, 2017.
  85. Slater, M. and Usoh, M., "Representation Systems, Perceptual Position, and Presence in Immersive Virtual Environments", Presence. Vol. 2, No. 3, 1993, pp. 221-233. https://doi.org/10.1162/pres.1993.2.3.221
  86. Son, J. W., "A Study on The Application Status of Cyber Sickness Mitigation Methods in Korean Virtual Reality Games", The Graduate School Sangmyung University, 2017.
  87. Song, C. S. and Shin, J. C., "Building Interactivity on the Internet", Korean Journal of Marketing, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1999, pp. 69-95.
  88. Stromer-Galley, J., "Interactivity as product and interactivity as process", The Information Society, Vol. 20, No. 5, 2004, pp. 391-394. https://doi.org/10.1080/01972240490508081
  89. Suh, D. H., "A Study on the Effectiveness of the Image Recognition Technique of Augmented Reality Contents", Cartoon and Animations Studies, Vol. 41, 2015, pp. 337-356. https://doi.org/10.7230/KOSCAS.2015.41.337
  90. Sutherland, I. E., "A head-mounted three dimensional display", Paper Presented at the Fall Joint Computer Conference, ACM, 1968.
  91. Sweetser, P. and Wyeth, P., "Game Flow: a model for evaluating player enjoyment in games", Computers in Entertainment, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2005, pp. 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1145/1077246.1077248
  92. Wu, G., "The Media Role of Perceived Interactive in the Effect of Actual Interactivity on Attitude Toward the Website", Journal of Interactive Advertising, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2005.
  93. Yang, E. B. and Ryu, J. H., The Effect of Segmentation Principle on Usability and Cognitive Load in Augmented Reality", The Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2018, pp. 49-71.
  94. Yang, Y. S., "A study on interaction effect of flow experience to interactivity of Social Media and intention to use: Focused on difference in decision stage of travel planning", The Graduate School of Sejong University, 2014.
  95. Yim, Y. K. and Lee, E. J., "Augmented Reality (AR) studies in Image system", The Journal of the Korea Society of Art & Design, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2017, pp. 75-97.
  96. Yoon, J. Y. and Moon, I. Y., "The Study on Marker-less Tracking Algorithm Performance based on Mobile Augmented Reality", The Journal of Korea Navigation Institute, Vol. 16, No. 6, 2012, pp. 1032-1037.
  97. Yoon, J. Y., "Intention to Reuse Internet Primary Bank Using Extended Technology Acceptance Model", Consumer Policy and Education Review, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2020, pp. 43-64. https://doi.org/10.15790/cope.2020.16.1.043
  98. Zhang, Y. N., "A Comparative Study on the Influencing Factors of 3D Content Experience between Korea and China", Graduate School, Chungbuk National University, 2020.