• Title/Summary/Keyword: 유한체적법

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Numerical Study on Couette Flow in Nanostructured Channel using Molecular-continuum Hybrid Method (분자-연속체 하이브리드 기법을 이용한 구조물이 있는 나노 채널에서의 쿠에트 유동에 대한 수치적 연구)

  • Kim, Youngjin;Jeong, Myunggeun;Ha, Man Yeong
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.429-434
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    • 2017
  • A molecular-continuum hybrid method was developed to simulate microscale and nanoscale fluids where continuum fluidics cannot be used to predict Couette flow. Molecular dynamics simulation is used near the solid surface where the flow cannot be predicted by continuum fluidics, and Navier-Stokes equations are used in the other regions. Numerical simulation of Couette flow was performed using the hybrid method to investigate the effect of solid-liquid interaction and surface roughness in a nanochannel. It was found that the solid-liquid interaction and surface roughness influence the boundary condition. When the surface energy is low, slippage occurs near the solid surface, and the magnitude of slippage decreases with increase in surface energy. When the surface energy is high, a locking boundary condition is formed. The roughness disturbs slippage near the solid surface and promotes the locking boundary condition.

Numerical Analysis of Rocket Exhaust Plume with Equilibrium Chemistry and Thermal Radiation (화학 평형과 열복사를 포함한 로켓 플룸 유동 해석)

  • Shin Jae-Ryul;Choi Jeong-Yeol;Choi Hwan-Seck
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.35-45
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    • 2005
  • Numerical study is carried out to investigate the effects of chemistry and thermal radiation on the rocket plume flow field at various altitudes. Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flows were solved by a fully-implicit TVD code based on the finite volume method. An infinitely fast chemistry module for hydrocarbon mixture with detailed thermo-chemical properties and a thermal radiation module for optically thick media were incorporated with the fluid dynamics code. The plume flow fields of a kerosene-fueled rocket flying at Mach number zero at sea-level, 1.16 at altitude of 5.06 km and 2.90 at 17.34 km were numerically analyzed. Results showed the plume structures at different altitude conditions with the effects of chemistry and radiation. It is understood that the excess temperature by the chemical reactions in the exhaust gas may not be ignored in the view point of propulsion performance and thermal protection of the rocket base, especially at higher altitude conditions.

Theoretical and Computational Analyses of Bernoulli Levitation Flows (베르누이 부상유동의 이론해석 및 수치해석 연구)

  • Nam, Jong Soon;Kim, Gyu Wan;Kim, Jin Hyeon;Kim, Heuy Dong
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.37 no.7
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    • pp.629-636
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    • 2013
  • Pneumatic levitation is based upon Bernoulli's principle. However, this method is known to require a large gas flow rate that can lead to an increase in the cost of products. In this case, the gas flow rate should be increased, and the compressible effects of the gas may be of practical importance. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics method has been used to obtain insights into Bernoulli levitation flows. Three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations in combination with the SST k-${\omega}$ turbulence model were solved using a fully implicit finite volume scheme. The gas flow rate, workpiece diameter,and clearance gap between the workpiece and the circular cylinder were varied to investigate the flow characteristics inside. It is known that there is an optimal clearance gap for the lifting force and that increasing the supply gas flow rate results in a larger lifting force.

Numerical Study of Natural Convection in a Square Enclosure with an Inner Circular Cylinder for Rayleigh Number of 107 (107의 Rayleigh 수에서 원형 실린더가 존재하는 사각형 실린더 내부의 자연대류에 관한 수치적 연구)

  • Yu, Dong-Hun;Yoon, Hyun-Sik;Ha, Man-Yeong
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.34 no.8
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    • pp.739-747
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    • 2010
  • Numerical calculations are carried out for evaluating the natural convection induced by the temperature difference between a hot inner circular cylinder and a cold outer square enclosure. A two-dimensional solution for unsteady natural convection is obtained by using the finite volume method to model an inner circular cylinder that was designed by using the immersed boundary method (IBM) for a Rayleigh number of $10^7$. In this study, we investigate the effect of the location ($\delta$) of the inner cylinder, which is located along the vertical central axis of the outer enclosure, on the heat transfer and fluid flow. The natural convection changes from unsteady to steady state depending on the $\delta$. The two critical lower bound and upper bound positions are ${\delta}_{C,L}$ = 0.05 and ${\delta}_{C,U}$ = 0.18, respectively. Within these defined bounds, the thermal and flow fields are in steady state.

The Effect of the Variation of Pressure Ratio on the Characteristics of Lateral Forces in an Over-Expanded Nozzle (압력비 변화과정이 과팽창 노즐에서 발생하는 횡력 변동 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jong-Sung;Kim, Heuy-Dong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.38-44
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    • 2010
  • The shock wave and boundary layer interaction patterns in an over-expanded rocket nozzle are associated with the production of undesirable side-forces during the start-up and shut-down processes of the engine. In the present work, a computational study is carried out to investigate the effect of the transient nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) on the flow fields inside the nozzle. The unsteady, compressible, axisymmetric, Navier-Stocks equations with SST k-${\omega}$ turbulence model are solved using a fully implicit finite volume scheme. NPR is varied from 2.0 to 10.0, in order to simulate the start-up and shut-down processes of the rocket engine. It is observed that the interaction patterns and the hysteresis phenomenon strongly depend on the time variation of NPR, leading to significantly different characteristics in the lateral forces.

Study on the Hysteretic Behaviors of Shock Wave in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel (초음속 풍동에서 발생하는 충격파의 히스테리시스 현상에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Ik In;Han, Geu Roo;Kim, Teo Ho;Kim, Heuy Dong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.52-58
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    • 2018
  • Hysteresis phenomena are often encountered in a wide variety of fluid flow systems used in industrial and engineering applications. Hence, in recent years, a significant amount of research been focusing on clarifying the physics of the flow hysteresis appearing during the transient change of the pressure ratios and influencing the performance of the supersonic wind tunnel. However, investigations on the hysteresis phenomenon, particularly when it occurs inside the supersonic wind tunnel, are rare. In this study, numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the hysteresis phenomena of the shock waves encountered in a supersonic wind tunnel. The unsteady and compressible flow was analyzed with an axisymmetric model, and the N-S equations were solved by using a fully implicit finite volume scheme. The optimal pressure ratio was determined from the hysteresis curves, and the results can be utilized to operate the wind tunnel efficiently.

Numerical modeling of secondary flow behavior in a meandering channel with submerged vanes (잠긴수제가 설치된 만곡수로에서의 이차류 거동 수치모의)

  • Lee, Jung Seop;Park, Sang Deog;Choi, Cheol Hee;Paik, Joongcheol
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.52 no.10
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    • pp.743-752
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    • 2019
  • The flow in the meandering channel is characterized by the spiral motion of secondary currents that typically cause the erosion along the outer bank. Hydraulic structures, such as spur dike and groyne, are commonly installed on the channel bottom near the outer bank to mitigate the strength of secondary currents. This study is to investigate the effects of submerged vanes installed in a $90^{\circ}$ meandering channel on the development of secondary currents through three-dimensional numerical modeling using the hybrid RANS/LES method for turbulence and the volume of fluid method, based on OpenFOAM open source toolbox, for capturing the free surface at the Froude number of 0.43. We employ the second-order-accurate finite volume methods in the space and time for the numerical modeling and compare numerical results with experimental measurements for evaluating the numerical predictions. Numerical results show that the present simulations well reproduce the experimental measurements, in terms of the time-averaged streamwise velocity and secondary velocity vector fields in the bend with submerged vanes. The computed flow fields reveal that the streamwise velocity near the bed along the outer bank at the end section of bend dramatically decrease by one third of mean velocity after the installation of vanes, which support that submerged vanes mitigate the strength of primary secondary flow and are helpful for the channel stability along the outer bank. The flow between the top of vanes and the free surface accelerates and the maximum velocity of free surface flow near the flow impingement along the outer bank increases about 20% due to the installation of submerged vanes. Numerical solutions show the formations of the horseshoe vortices at the front of vanes and the lee wakes behind the vanes, which are responsible for strong local scour around vanes. Additional study on the shapes and arrangement of vanes is required for mitigate the local scour.

BGK 수치기법을 이용한 로켓 노즐 내의 유동장 해석

  • 신동신;이재성
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers Conference
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    • 2000.04a
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    • pp.16-16
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    • 2000
  • 충격파를 포함하는 초음속 유동을 해석하는 수치해법 중에서 많이 사용되어진 것은 엄밀 및 근사 리만 해법과 플럭스 분할 기법들로서 이들은 Euler 방정식에 기반을 두고 선형 또는 비선형파의 상호작용을 풍상 차분법으로 기술하는 방법들이다. 이러한 수치기법들은 과거 광범위하게 사용되어 왔으나 최근 여러 가지 단점이 발견되었다. 이와 같은 문제점을 극복하고자 입자의 통계적인 운동을 기술하는 기체 운동론에 근거하여 BGK 수치기법이 제시되었다. 이는 비충돌 볼츠만 방정식으로부터 입자의 수준에서 플럭스 분할 기법 형태의 풍상차분법을 구현하는 것으로 볼츠만 방정식의 충돌항을 BGK 모델로 대치하고 이것의 적분해로부터 수치 플럭스를 구한다. 이 수치기법은 기존의 리만해법에 비하여 수치적으로나 물리적으로 매우 타당한 성질인 강건성, 정확성, 엔트로피 조건, 양수보존성 등을 가지고 있음이 밝혀졌다. 이와 같은 수치기법을 사용하여 로켓 노즐 내의 아음속, 천이음속, 초음속에서의 유동장 해석을 위한 프로그램을 작성하였다. 시간 적분에 대하여는 정상 상태의 계산을 위하여 내재적 시간 적분 방법을 사용하였으며, 공간 이산화 방법으로는 임의의 제어체적에 대하여 적분형 보존 방정식을 적용하는 유한 체적법을 사용하였다. 초음속 입구 유동과 출구에서 초음속과 저음속 유동의 두가지 경우를 고려하여 얻은 결과를 기존의 연구 결과와 비교하여 본 결과 잘 일치하였다. 입구 유동이 저음속이고 출구 유동이 초음속인 경우에 대하여도 해석결과가 실험결과와 잘 일치하였다. 상대적으로 낮은 온도, 압력 조건과 높은 온도, 압력 조건을 가지는 고체 로켓 모터 노즐 내의 유동을 해석하였다. 이들 해석 결과를 전압, 전온도로 표준화시킨 결과 서로 일치하였으며, 파라서 저온, 저압에서 얻은 결과도 표준화시킬 경우, 고온, 고압에서도 사용될 수 있음을 알 수 있었다.의 영향에 초점을 맞추었다.다고 판단되며 배기 가스 자체에 대기 공기중에 함유되어 있던 습기가 얼어붙는(Icing화) 문제가 발생하기 때문에 배기가스의 Icing을 방지하기 위하여 압축기 끝단에서 공기를 추출하여 배기부분에 송출할 필요성이 있는 것으로 판단되었다. 출구가스의 기체 유동속도가 매우 빠르므로 (100-l10m.sec) 이를 완화하기 위한 디퓨저의 설계가 요구된다고 판단된다. 또 연소기 후방에 물을 주입하는 경우 열교환기 및 기타 부분품에 발생할 수 있는 부식 및 열교환 효율 저하도 간과할 수 없는 문제로 파악되었다. 이러한 기술적 문제가 적절히 해결되는 경우 비활성 가스 제너레이터는 민수용으로는 대형 빌딩, 산림, 유조선 등의 화재에 매우 적절히 사용되어 질 수 있을 뿐 아니라 군사적으로도 군사작전 중 및 공군 기지의 화재 그리고 지하벙커에 설치되어 있는 고급 첨단 군사 장비 등의 화재 뿐 아니라 대간첩작전 등에 효과적으로 활용될 수 있을 것으로 판단된다.가 작으며, 본 연소관에 충전된 RDX/AP계 추진제의 경우 추진제의 습기투과에 의한 추진제 물성 변화는 미미한 것으로 나타났다.의 향상으로, 음성개선에 효과적이라고 사료되었으며, 이 방법이 편측 성대마비 환자의 효과적인 음성개선의 치료방법의 하나로 응용될 수 있으리라 생각된다..7%), 혈액투석, 식도부분절제술 및 위루술·위회장문합술을 시행한 경우가 각 1례(2.9%)씩이었다. 13) 심각한 합병증은 9례(26.5%)에서 보였는데 그중 식도협착증이 6례(17.6%), 급성신부전증 1례(2.9%), 종격동기흉과 폐염이 병발한 경우와 폐염이 각 1례(2.9%)였다. 14) 식도경 시행회수는 1회가 17례(54.8%), 2회가 9례(29.0%), 3회 이상이 5례(16.1%)였다.EX>$IC_{50}$/ 값이 210 $\mu\textrm{g}$<

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Development of Two Dimensional Blade Section with High Efficiency for Marine Propeller (선박 프로펠러용 고효율 2차원 날개단면 개발)

  • Na, Yun-Cheol;Song, In-Haeng;Ahn, Jong-Woo
    • Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.11-23
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    • 1997
  • This paper contains a new approach to blade section design method for marine propellers. The hydrodynamic characteristics of 2-D section are highly influenced by its geometrical parameters i.e., thickness and camber distributions and leading edge radius etc. To consider fully turbulent flow field near 2-D section. the finite volume method with k-${\varepsilon}$ turbulent model which solve Reynolds time averaged Navier-Stokes(RANS) equation is applied. In this study, O-type grid system that can provide many calculation points on blade surface is used. The results were compared with those of the experiment of NACA0012 to confirm the accuracy of the developed codes. The goal of this study is the development of a blade section with high efficiency and low drag. To achieve this, we carried out the tests of lift, drag and cavitation characteristics in cavitation tunnel. The results of experiment were compared with numerical results in order to validate the proposed blades design method. By comparing the numerical results with the experiments, we found that the new blade section, KH28 allows superior performance in efficiency and cavitation avoidance characteristics. We further investigated the blade section design method and an application study of this section, KH28 to apply to the marine propeller. In order to improve the accuracy of numerical results on prediction of lift and drag, we conclude here that the 2-layer boundary model must be used.

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