• Title/Summary/Keyword: AR

Search Result 6,421, Processing Time 0.11 seconds

Exploring Sub-watershed suitable to UN-REDD/AR-CDM by Comparative Evaluation of Carbon Stock in Baekdu Mountain (백두산에서 탄소저장량 비교분석을 통한 UN REDD/AR-CDM 등록대상 소유역 추적)

  • Joo, Seung-Min;Um, Jung-Sup
    • Spatial Information Research
    • /
    • v.22 no.2
    • /
    • pp.1-9
    • /
    • 2014
  • UN-REDD (United Nations programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation in Developing Countries) and AR-CDM (Afforestation/Reforestation-Clean Development Mechanism) is currently being emerged as one of important mechanism to reduce carbon dioxide in relation to the deforestation. Discussion on North Korea as UN-REDD/AR-CDM project target continues with a view to preventing deforestation and to securing CER(certified emission reduction) for South Korea. The forests in Mt. Baekdu are degraded, deforestation is occurred, nevertheless, portion of forested area is still high, where both REDD and AR-CDM investment potential are quite high. Accordingly, this study is intended to explore a simultaneous registration potential to UNREDD/AR-CDM for Mt. Baekdu although separate registration to UN-REDD or AR-CDM has already gained worldwide recognition as a typical method in the process of GHG (Greenhouse Gas) reduction project. The results indicate that selecting UN-REDD or AR-CDM in accordance with sub-watershed forest condition could capture 53.2% more carbon dioxide than REDD alone and 21.9% more than AR-CDM alone. It is anticipated that this research output could be used as a realistic evidence to introduce carbon sequestering project in accordance with sub-watershed forest condition.

Cloning, Expression and Hormonal Regulation of Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Gene in Buffalo Ovary

  • Malhotra, Nupur;Singh, Dheer;Sharma, M.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.20 no.2
    • /
    • pp.184-193
    • /
    • 2007
  • In mammalian ovary, steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein mediates the true rate-limiting step of transport of cholesterol from outer to inner mitochondrial membrane. Appropriate expression of StAR gene represents an indispensable component of steroidogenesis and its regulation has been found to be species specific. However, limited information is available regarding StAR gene expression during estrous cycle in buffalo ovary. In the present study, expression, localization and hormonal regulation of StAR mRNA were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in buffalo ovary and partial cDNA was cloned. Total RNA was isolated from whole follicles of different sizes, granulosa cells from different size follicles and postovulatory structures like corpus luteum and Corpus albicans. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed StAR mRNA expression in the postovulatory structure, corpus luteum. No StAR mRNA was detected in total RNA isolated from whole follicles of different size including the preovulatory follicle (>9 mm in diameter). However, granulosa cells isolated from preovulatory follicles showed the moderate expression of StAR mRNA. To assess the hormonal regulation of StAR mRNA, primary culture of buffalo granulosa cells were treated with FSH (100 ng/ml) alone or along with IGF-I (100 ng/ml) for 12 to 18 h. The abundance of StAR mRNA increased in cells treated with FSH alone or FSH with IGF-I. However, effect of FSH with IGF-I on mRNA expression was found highly significant (p<0.01). In conclusion, differential expression of StAR messages was observed during estrous cycle in buffalo ovary. Also, there was a synergistic action of IGF-I on FSH stimulation of StAR gene.

A Filtering Technique for Stable Marker Tracking in Mobile Augmented Reality (모바일 증강현실 환경에서 안정적인 마커 추적을 위한 필터링 기법)

  • Yoon, Chang-Pyo;Lee, In-Kyung;Hwang, Chi-Gon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
    • /
    • 2017.05a
    • /
    • pp.297-299
    • /
    • 2017
  • Recently, the application fields of augmented reality(AR) are rapidly increasing, and related contents are also increasing in demand. In this way, object-based marker recognition is required for service of AR contents in mobile environment. At this time, in order to provide information corresponding to the marker, a technique of generating and servicing a virtual object corresponding to a specific marker is used. However, when a virtual object corresponding to a marker is held on the AR screen, a phenomenon occurs that an object of the marker unstably shakes due to various reasons such as camera shake and camera movement. As described above, the AR service based on the mobile device has a problem that it is difficult to represent objects stably. In this paper, we propose a stable marker recognition and tracking technique by applying the filtering technique according to the physical state change of the device when recognizing fixed markers in mobile AR environment.

  • PDF

Effects of Sputtering Ar Pressure on Magnetic and Magneto-optical Propwrties in Compositionally Modulated Co/Pd Supwrlattice Thin Films (조성변조 Co/Pd 초격자 박막의 Ar가스 압력변화에 따른 자기 및 자기광학적 특성)

  • 김진홍;신성철
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
    • /
    • v.2 no.2
    • /
    • pp.119-124
    • /
    • 1992
  • We have investigated the effects of sputtering Ar gas pressure on magnetic and magneto-optical properties in compositionally modulated Co/Pd superlattice thin films. The samples were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering from 2-in.-diam Co and Pd targets by alternately exposing the substrates to targets. Sputtering Ar gas pressure was varied from 2 to 30 mTorr. All samples had same bilayer thicknesses composed of 2-$\AA$-thick Co and 9-$\AA$-thick Pd sublayers. It was observed that the colum-nar structure was more distinctively developed with increasing Ar gas pressure. We observed that the intrinsic uniaxial anisotropy energy, magnetization and polar Kerr rotation were decreased with increasing Ar gas pressures. Large coercivity and perfect squareness were attained by the deposition at the high Ar gas pressure. We believe that the results are mainly ascribed the variation of micro-structure with sputtering Ar gas pressure.

  • PDF

Interactive Authoring Tool for Mobile Augmented Reality Content

  • Jeon, Jiyoung;Hong, Min;Yi, Manhui;Chun, Jiyoon;Kim, Ji Sim;Choi, Yoo-Joo
    • Journal of Information Processing Systems
    • /
    • v.12 no.4
    • /
    • pp.612-630
    • /
    • 2016
  • As mobile augmented reality technologies are spreading these days, many users want to produce augmented reality (AR) contents what they need by themselves. To keep pace with such needs, we have developed a mobile AR contents builder (hereafter referred to as MARB) that enables the user to easily connect a natural marker and a virtual object with various interaction events that are used to manipulate the virtual object in a mobile environment so that users can simply produce an AR content using natural photos and virtual objects that they select. MARB consists of five major modules-target manger, virtual object manager, AR accessory manager, AR content manager, and AR viewer. The target manager, virtual object manager and AR accessory manager register and manage natural target markers, various virtual objects and content accessories (such as various decorating images), respectively. The AR content manger defines a connection between a target and a virtual object with enabling various interactions for the desired functions such as translation/rotation/scaling of the virtual object, playing of a music, etc. AR viewer augments various virtual objects (such as 2D images, 3D models and video clips) on the pertinent target. MARB has been developed in a mobile application (app) format in order to create AR contents simply using mobile smart devices without switching to a PC environment for authoring the content. In this paper, we present the detail organizations and applications of MARB. It is expected that MARB will enable ordinary users to produce diverse mobile AR contents for various purposes with ease and contribute to expanding the mobile AR market based on spread of a variety of AR contents.

Menin Enhances Androgen Receptor-Independent Proliferation and Migration of Prostate Cancer Cells

  • Kim, Taewan;Jeong, Kwanyoung;Kim, Eunji;Yoon, Kwanghyun;Choi, Jinmi;Park, Jae Hyeon;Kim, Jae-Hwan;Kim, Hyung Sik;Youn, Hong-Duk;Cho, Eun-Jung
    • Molecules and Cells
    • /
    • v.45 no.4
    • /
    • pp.202-215
    • /
    • 2022
  • The androgen receptor (AR) is an important therapeutic target for treating prostate cancer (PCa). Moreover, there is an increasing need for understanding the AR-independent progression of tumor cells such as neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC). Menin, which is encoded by multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), serves as a direct link between AR and the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) complex in PCa development by activating AR target genes through histone H3 lysine 4 methylation. Although menin is a critical component of AR signaling, its tumorigenic role in AR-independent PCa cells remains unknown. Here, we compared the role of menin in AR-positive and AR-negative PCa cells via RNAi-mediated or pharmacological inhibition of menin. We demonstrated that menin was involved in tumor cell growth and metastasis in PCa cells with low or deficient levels of AR. The inhibition of menin significantly diminished the growth of PCa cells and induced apoptosis, regardless of the presence of AR. Additionally, transcriptome analysis showed that the expression of many metastasis-associated genes was perturbed by menin inhibition in AR-negative DU145 cells. Furthermore, wound-healing assay results showed that menin promoted cell migration in AR-independent cellular contexts. Overall, these findings suggest a critical function of menin in tumorigenesis and provide a rationale for drug development against menin toward targeting high-risk metastatic PCa, especially those independent of AR.

Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Induces Androgen Receptor Activation in Differentiating C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Cells

  • Kim, Hye Jin;Lee, Won Jun
    • Molecules and Cells
    • /
    • v.28 no.3
    • /
    • pp.189-194
    • /
    • 2009
  • The modulating effect of IGF-I on the regulation of AR gene expression and activation in skeletal muscle cells remains poorly understood. In this study, the effects of IGF-I treatment on AR induction and activation in the absence of AR ligands were examined. Differentiating C2C12 cells were treated with different concentrations (0-250 ng/ml) of IGF-I or for various periods of time (0-60 min) of 250 ng/ml IGF-I. Treatment of C2C12 cells with IGF-I resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in total AR and phosphorylated AR (Ser 213). IGF-I treatment also led to significantly increased AR mRNA expression when compared with the control. The levels of skeletal ${\alpha}-actin$ and myogenin mRNA, known target genes of AR, were also significantly upregulated after 5 or 10 min of treatment with IGF-I. Confocal images revealed that IGF-I stimulated nuclear localization of AR in the absence of ligands. In addition, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay indicated that IGF-I stimulated the AR DNA binding activity in a time-dependent manner. The present results suggest that IGF-I stimulates the expression and activation of AR by ligand-independent mechanism in differentiating C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells.

Augmented Reality Based Interactive Tourism Content Development Case Study (증강현실 기반 인터랙티브 관광 콘텐츠 발전사례연구 - 중국 지역도시 구랑위를 중심으로)

  • Zhou, Zhihua;Lee, Tae-Hoon
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
    • /
    • v.19 no.2
    • /
    • pp.379-386
    • /
    • 2021
  • The tourism industry and AR act as important factors to diversify the tourism industry by combining them with one another. Currently, the advent of mobile smartphones and AR interactive is expected to play a major role in improving tourists' experiences and promoting tourism. AR's high entertainment characteristics, realism and strong interaction can be actively used as a major advantage in promoting tourism. This paper presents some appropriate examples of how AR interactive design is used in tourism marketing through various use cases where AR interactive design is used in tourism. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the Magical Gulangyu verifies the descriptions listed in the text and presents the direction of future research.

A Comparison of Univariate and Multivariate AR Models for Monthly River Flow Series (월유량에 대한 일변량 및 다변량 AR모형의 비교)

  • 이원환;심재현
    • Water for future
    • /
    • v.23 no.1
    • /
    • pp.99-107
    • /
    • 1990
  • The statistical analysis based on the past hydrologic data required to set up the water resources development plan and design the hydraulic structres rationally. Because hydrologic events have random factors implied, the sotchastic analysis is necessary. In this paper, same order of stochastic models of monthly runoff data(multivariate AR(1) and AR(2) models, univariate AR(1) and AR(2) models) are applied to compare the statistical characteristics. The other purpose of this paper is to compare the monthly series, which is generated by univariate and multivariate models. By comparing and estimating of each simulated series, it is known that the multivariate models, including the time and spatial colinearity, are better in prediction than univariate models in the analysis of monthly flow at south Han river basin.

  • PDF

Analysis on the Mean energy of electrons in $SF_6-Ar$ Mixtures Gas used by MCS-BEq Algorithm ($SF_6-Ar$ 혼합기체(混合氣體)의 MCS-BEq알고리즘에 의한 전자(電子) 평균(平均)에너지 해석(解析))

  • Kim, Sang-Nam;Ha, Sung-Chul
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of IIIuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers Conference
    • /
    • 2004.05a
    • /
    • pp.281-284
    • /
    • 2004
  • Mean energy of electrons in $SF_6-Ar$ Mixtures Gas used by MCS-BEq algorithm has been analysed over the E/N range $30{\sim}300[Td]$ by a two term Boltzmann equation and by a Monte Carlo Simulation using a set of electron cross sections determined by other authors, experimentally the electron swarm parameters for 0.2[%] and 0.5[%] $SF_6-Ar$, 0.1[%] and 5.0[%], $SF_6-Ar$ mixtures were measured by time-of-flight(TOF) method. The transport Coefficients for electrons in (100[%])$SF_6$. (100[%])Ar, (0.2[%])$SF_6-Ar$ and (0.5[%]) $SF_6-Ar$, (5.0[%]) $SF_6-Ar$, (0.1[%])$SF_6-Ar$ mixtures were measured by time-of-flight method, and the electron energy distribution function and the parameters of the velocity and the diffusion were determined by the variation of the collision cross-sections with energy. The results obtained from Boltzmann equation method and Monte Carlo simulation have been compared with present and previously obtained data and respective set of electron collision cross sections of the molecules.

  • PDF