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A study on a flow of the technological convergence in webtoon - Focused on the interactiontoon of webtoon (기술 융합형 웹툰의 몰입도 연구 -인터랙션 툰 <마주쳤다>를 중심으로)

  • Baek, Eun-Ji;Son, Ki-Hwan
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • s.50
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    • pp.101-130
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    • 2018
  • Since the advent of the Smart Devices, the smartphone has become a popular tool to view Webtoon. This phenomenon has caused the convergence of cutting-edge technologies and Webtoons in diverse forms, creating unique versions of Webtoons including, but not limited to Smart-toon, Effect-toon, Cut-toon, Dubbing-toon, Moving-toon, AR-toon, VR-toon, and Interaction-toon. By comparison to these rich diversities of Webtoons in the online industry, there is a lack of academic research on this topic. There are some papers which talk about the different types of multimedia technology conversion and its case presentation or the effectiveness and problems of visual effect, but the effects of these convergence technologies on comic readers' concentration and reading effectiveness have never been investigated so far. Therefore, this paper will discuss the unique method of immersive storytelling that is often used in comics and analyze each aspects of immersive method in technology-converged Webtoons along with its problems. Furthermore, this paper will analyze different aspects of "immersion" and interaction elements that can be found in the popular Interaction-toon, (Encountered). Through this, this paper discusses the positive influence of the interaction elements on comic readers' immersion level and its limitation. To classify the technology-converged Webtoons in terms of the immersion level, the Effect-toon sometimes interferes viewer's flow by using excessive use of multimedia effect, creating information overload. The Smart-toon which applied motions to each frame under horizontal mode of smartphones was a good try, but it hindered the readers' activeness and made it hard for the readers to be fully absorbed in the story. The VR-toon, which utilizes virtual reality gadgets to allow viewers to explore the world of Webtoon was also a nice try to overcome the limitation of vertical screens. However, it often caused dispersion of user's attention and reduced the users' immersion level. The Moving-toon which only emphasized the reading convenience also invaded readers' activeness and disturb users' concentration. On the other hand, the cartoonist Il-Kwon Ha applied high technologies such as face recognition technology, augmented reality techniques, 360-degree panorama technology, and haptic technology to his cartoon (Encountered). This allowed the readers to form a sense of closeness towards the cartoon characters which let the readers to identify themselves with the characters and interact with them. By this way, the readers can be fully immersed in the story. However, technology abuse, impractical production and hackneyed storylining often showed later in the story remains as its limitations.

$Ca^{++}$ Polls in Isolated Rabbit and Turtle Heart (적출된 토끼와 자라심장에서의 $Ca^{++}$ Pool)

  • Kim, In-Kyo;Lee, Joong-Woo;Kang, Doo-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.13-22
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    • 1975
  • From the study of movements of $Ca^{++}$ in frog cardiac muscle, Niedergerke (1963) postulated that $Ca^{++}$ necessary for the cardiac contraction is stored in a specific pool. Langer et al (1967) and DeCaro (1967) also found a close relationship between the change of $Ca^{++}$ flux kinetics and the change of contractile force. According to the studies of several investigators, Ca II (Bailey and Dressel 1968) or phase I and II (Langer 1965, Langer et al 1967, 1971) in the $Ca^{++}$ washout curve was associated with cardiac contractility. This investigation was aimed to elucidate the anatomical region of the contractile active $Ca^{++}$ pool. At the same time, it was assumed in this study that $Ca^{++}$ in the sarcoplasmic reticulumn represents one of the major intracellular $Ca^{++}$ pool and cardiac contractility was also dependent on the intracellular $Ca^{++}$ concentration. Consequently, this experiment was performed at different temperatures to activate to activate inhibit the deactivating process of activated $Ca^{++}$ in the intracellular space to see if changes in the contractility decay curve existed at different temperatures. The isolated hearts of rabbits and turtles (Amyda maackii) were attached to the perfusion apparatus according to the method employed by Bailey and Dressel (1968). The isolated hearts were initally perfused with a full Ringer solution containing 2 mg/ml of inulin for 1 hr, and then $Ca^{++}$ and inulin-free Ringer solution was perfused while the isometric tension was recorded and a serial sample of perfusion fluid dripping from the cardiac apex was collected for 10 sec throughout experimental period. The above procedure was performed at $23^{\circ}C$, $30^{\circ}C$ and $38^{\circ}C$ on the rabbit heart and $10{\sim}13^{\circ}C$, $10^{\circ}C$, $25^{\circ}C$, $30^{\circ}C$ and $35^{\circ}C$ on the turtle heart. After determination of $Ca^{++}$ and inulin concentration of the samples, the $Ca^{++}$, inulin washout curve and the contractile tensin decay curve were analysed according to the method of Riggs (1963). The results were summarized as follows; 1. In the rabbit heart, there are 2 inulin compartments, 3 $Ca^{++}$ compartments and sing1e exponential decay of contractile tension. In the turtle heart, there are $1{\sim}2$ inulin compartments, $1{\sim}2$ $Ca^{++}$ compartments and $1{\sim}2$ phases of contractile tension decay. The fact that the inulin space was divided into 3 compartments in the washout curve in these hearts indicates the presence of heterogeneity in cardiac perfusion, i.e., overfused and underperfused area. 2. Ca I a9d Ca II in these hearts were found to have $Ca^{++}$ in the ECF compartments because their half times in the washout curves were far smaller than those of the inulin washout curves in the rabbit heart and similar to those of the inulin washout curves in the turtle heart. Ca III in the rabbit heart may have originated from the intracellular $Ca^{++}$ store. But no Ca III in the turtle heart was found. This may be due to the fact that the iutracellular $Ca^{++}$ pool in the turtle heart was too small to detect using this experimental procedure since sarcoplasmic reticulumn in the turtle heart is poorly developed. 3. In the rabbit heart, there were no chages in the half time of Ca I, Ca II, inulin I and inulin II at different temperatures, but the half time of Ca III was significantly prolonged at lower temperatures, and the half time of the contractile tension decay tended to be prolonged at lower temperatures but this was not significant. In the turtle heart, there were no changes in the half time of Ca I, Ca II, inulin 1, inulin II and phase I of the contractile tension decay at different temperatures, but the half time of phase II of the contractile tension decay was significantly prolonged at lower temperatures. This finding indicates that intracellu!ar $Ca^{++}$ in these hearts was also responsible particulary for maintaining the cardiac contractility at the lower temperatures. 4. The half times of contractile tension decay were shorter than those of Ca II in the $Ca^{++}$ washout curves in both animal hearts. According to the above results it was shown that $Ca^{++}$ in ECF is primarily and $Ca^{++}$ in the intracellular space is partially associated with the cardic contractility.

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A Study on the Skeletal and Profile Change after Using the Activator in Class II Malocclusion (II급 부정 교합자의 Activator 치료 후 골격 및 안모 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Moon, Eun-Young;Lee, Jin-Woo
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.121-132
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    • 2008
  • To establish the diagnosis and treatment plan for skeletal Class II malocclusion, patient's skeletal morphology, prognosis as well as the treatment effect is one of the important factor to consider. Therefore, the present study classified analyzed the difference between initial(T1) and after use of activator(T2), and after finish of direct multi-bonding system treatment(T3) for Class II malocclusion during growth period according to the treatment result(effective body length) and morphology of vertical skeletal type. The experimental group was classified into two groups(1 group, 2 group) according to the effective body length change between before and after use of activator, showed good treatment effect of activator for patient with small mandible and large differential between maxilla and mandible, and short anterior facial height. And the difference between 1 and 2 group in the experimental group before treatment(T1) disappeared in the finished treatment(T3). But in contrast, the initial difference of T1 stage between a and b group in the control group did not disappear in the finished treatment(T3). In short, experimental group's treatment effect was much better than contrast group and the treatment effect was maintained and got stable results at comparison experimental group with contrast group. Through this study, we can find activator's treatment effect and stable retention of that in growing Class II malocclusion patients. By estimate of activator treatment effect through these results, we can establish the correct diagnosis and treatment plan for adolescent Class II malocclusion estimate of activator treatment effect and lead the ideal facial growth pattern.

Surgical Treatment of Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum -Effect of the size of tricuspid valve annulus on the surgical outcome- (영아기에 발견된 심실중격이 온전한 폐동맥 폐쇄증의 외과적 수술요법 술전 삼첨판륜 크기 가 수술 결과에 미치는 영향)

  • 이정렬;윤태진
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.29 no.10
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    • pp.1081-1089
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    • 1996
  • Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum has continued to have a high surgical mortality and morbidity. This mAy attribute to the non-uniformity of the anomaly. We reviewed a total of 34 infants with pulmonary atresla and intact ventricular septum managed in this hospital between 1987 and 1995. Mean age and body weight were 57.2 (range, 3-208) days and 4.1 (range, B.3∼6.8) kg. The preoperative Z-value of the diameter of the tricuspid valve was less than -2 in 85.2% of patients and less than -4 in 33. 3% . It is well correlated w th right ventricular cavity size (n=27. r10.68, p< 0.05). Coronary artery-right ventricular fistulas were identified in 3 patients, and right ventricular dependency was suspected in 1 Over All hospital mortality was 23.5%(8/34), although it decreased to 16.6%(4124) in 1990s. Subsequent procedures were performed in 6 patients between 3 days and 58 months after Initial palliation : one bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt and 1 Fontan operation after systemic-pulmonary shunt, 3 transannular patch + atrial septal defect closure and 1 additional systemic-pulmonary shunt after polmonary valvectomy or valvotomy. Changes of Z-values of the diameter of tricuspid valve have been followed up in 11 patients between 1 and 66 months postoperatively. Z-values were increased In 5 out of 8 transannular right ventriculAr outflow tract enlargement group and in 1 out of 3 pulmonary valvectomy or valvotomy group. Our data suggest that tailoring a treatment to right ventricular cavity size and coronary anom lies may improve the surgical outcome. A Z-value of the tricuspid valve diameter could be used.

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Low temperature plasma deposition of microcrystalline silicon thin films for active matrix displays: opportunities and challenges

  • Cabarrocas, Pere Roca I;Abramov, Alexey;Pham, Nans;Djeridane, Yassine;Moustapha, Oumkelthoum;Bonnassieux, Yvan;Girotra, Kunal;Chen, Hong;Park, Seung-Kyu;Park, Kyong-Tae;Huh, Jong-Moo;Choi, Joon-Hoo;Kim, Chi-Woo;Lee, Jin-Seok;Souk, Jun-H.
    • 한국정보디스플레이학회:학술대회논문집
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    • 2008.10a
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    • pp.107-108
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    • 2008
  • The spectacular development of AMLCDs, been made possible by a-Si:H technology, still faces two major drawbacks due to the intrinsic structure of a-Si:H, namely a low mobility and most important a shift of the transfer characteristics of the TFTs when submitted to bias stress. This has lead to strong research in the crystallization of a-Si:H films by laser and furnace annealing to produce polycrystalline silicon TFTs. While these devices show improved mobility and stability, they suffer from uniformity over large areas and increased cost. In the last decade we have focused on microcrystalline silicon (${\mu}c$-Si:H) for bottom gate TFTs, which can hopefully meet all the requirements for mass production of large area AMOLED displays [1,2]. In this presentation we will focus on the transfer of a deposition process based on the use of $SiF_4$-Ar-$H_2$ mixtures from a small area research laboratory reactor into an industrial gen 1 AKT reactor. We will first discuss on the optimization of the process conditions leading to fully crystallized films without any amorphous incubation layer, suitable for bottom gate TFTS, as well as on the use of plasma diagnostics to increase the deposition rate up to 0.5 nm/s [3]. The use of silicon nanocrystals appears as an elegant way to circumvent the opposite requirements of a high deposition rate and a fully crystallized interface [4]. The optimized process conditions are transferred to large area substrates in an industrial environment, on which some process adjustment was required to reproduce the material properties achieved in the laboratory scale reactor. For optimized process conditions, the homogeneity of the optical and electronic properties of the ${\mu}c$-Si:H films deposited on $300{\times}400\;mm$ substrates was checked by a set of complementary techniques. Spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, dark conductivity, time resolved microwave conductivity and hydrogen evolution measurements allowed demonstrating an excellent homogeneity in the structure and transport properties of the films. On the basis of these results, optimized process conditions were applied to TFTs, for which both bottom gate and top gate structures were studied aiming to achieve characteristics suitable for driving AMOLED displays. Results on the homogeneity of the TFT characteristics over the large area substrates and stability will be presented, as well as their application as a backplane for an AMOLED display.

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Importance of Strain Improvement and Control of Fungal cells Morphology for Enhanced Production of Protein-bound Polysaccharides(β-D-glucan) in Suspended Cultures of Phellinus linteus Mycelia (Phellinus linteus의 균사체 액상배양에서 단백다당체(β-D-glucan)의 생산성 향상을 위한 균주 개량과 배양형태 조절의 중요성)

  • Shin, Woo-Shik;Kwon, Yong Jung;Jeong, Yong-Seob;Chun, Gie-Taek
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.220-229
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    • 2009
  • Strain improvement and morphology investigation in bioreactor cultures were undertaken in suspended cultures of Phellinus linteus mycelia for mass production of protein-bound polysaccharides(soluble ${\beta}$-D-glucan), a powerful immuno-stimulating agent. Phellineus sp. screened for this research was identified as Phellinus linteues through ITS rDNA sequencing method and blast search, demonstrating 99.7% similarity to other Phellinus linteus strains. Intensive strain improvement program was carried out by obtaining large amounts of protoplasts for the isolation of single cell colonies. Rapid and large screening of high-yielding producers was possible because large numbers of protoplasts ($1{\times}10^5{\sim}10^6\;protoplasts/ml$) formed using the banding filtration method with the cell wall-disrupting enzymes could be regenerated in relatively high regeneration frequency($10^{-2}{\sim}10^{-3}$) in the newly developed regeneration medium. It was demonstrated that the strains showing high performances in the protoplast regeneration and solid growth medium were able to produce 5.8~6.4%(w/w) of ${\beta}$-D-glucan and 13~15 g/L of biomass in stable manners in suspended shake-flask cultures of P. linteus mycelia. In addition, cell mass increase was observed to be the most important in order to enhance ${\beta}$-D-glucan productivity during the course of strain improvement program, since the amount of ${\beta}$-D-glucan extracted from the cell wall of P. linteus mycelia was almost constant on the unit biomass basis. Therefore we fully investigated the fungal cell morphology, generally known as one of the key factors affecting cell growth extent in the bioreactor cultures of mycelial fungal cells. It was found that, in order to obtain as high cell mass as possible in the final production bioreactor cultures, the producing cells should be proliferated in condensed filamentous forms in the growth cultures, and optimum amounts of these filamentous cells should be transferred as active inoculums to the production bioreactor. In this case, ideal morphologies consisting of compacted pellets less than 0.5mm in diameter were successfully induced in the production cultures, resulting in shorter period of lag phase, 1.5 fold higher specific cell growth rate and 3.3 fold increase in the final biomass production as compared to the parallel bioreactor cultures of different morphological forms. It was concluded that not only the high-yielding but also the good morphological characteristics led to the significantly higher biomass production and ${\beta}$-D-glucan productivity in the final production cultures.

The Effect of Au Addition on the Hardening Mechanism in Ag-25wt% Pd-15wt% Cu (Ag-25wt% Pd-15wt% Cu 3원합금(元合金) 및 Au 첨가합금(添加合金)의 시효경화특성(時效京華特性))

  • Bea, B.J.;Lee, H.S.;Lee, K.D.
    • Journal of Technologic Dentistry
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.37-49
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    • 1998
  • The specimens used were Ag-25 Pd-15 Cu ternary alloy and Au addition alloy. These alloys were melted and casted by induction electric furnace and centrifugal casting machine in Ar atmosphere. These specimens were solution treated for 2hr at $800^{\circ}C$ and were then quenched into iced water, and aged at $350{\sim}550^{\circ}C$ Age- hardening characteristics of the small Au-containing Ag-Pd-Cu dental alloys were investigated by means of hardness testing. X-ray diffraction and electron microscope observations, electrical resistance, ergy dispersed spectra and electron probe microanalysis. Principal results are as follows : Hardening occured in two stages, i.e., stage I in low temperature and stage II in high temperature regions, during continuous aging. The case of hardening in stage I was due to the formation of the $L1_0$ type face-centered tetragonal PdCu-ordered phase in the grain interior and hardening in stage I was affected by the Cu concentration. In stage II, decomposition of the ${\alpha}$ solid solution to a PdCu ordered phase($L1_0$ type) and an Ag-rich ${\alpha}2$ phase occurred and a discontinuous precipitation occurred at the grain boundary. From the electron microscope study, it was conclued that the cause of age-hardening in this alloy is the precipitation of the PdCu ordered phase, which has AuCu I type face-centered tetragonal structure. Precipetation procedure was ${\alpha}{\to}{\alpha}+{\alpha}_2+PdCu {\to}{\alpha}_1+{\alpha}_2+PdCu$ at Pd/Cu = 1.7 Ag-Pd-Cu alloy is more effective dental alloy as ageing treatment and is suitable to isothermal ageing at $450^{\circ}C$.

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Effects of Rhizobium Inoculation on the changes of Ureide-N and Amide-N Concentration in Stem and Root exudate of Soybean Plant (대두근류균(大豆根瘤菌) 접종(接種)이 뿌리와 줄기 즙액중(汁液中) Amide-N 및 Ureide-N 농도(濃度)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Ko, Jae-Young;Suh, Jang-Sun;Lee, Sang-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.329-336
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    • 1989
  • A series of green house experiment was conducted to find but the effect of fertilizer application and inoculation of rhizobium on the changes of amide-N, ureide-N and $NH_4-N$ concentration in stem and root exudates of soybean plant growth. The results obtained were summarized as follows ; 1. Five strains of indigenous Rhizobium japonicum-nitrogen fixing activity($C_2H_2$-reducing activity) was more than 6.4 to 20.1 nmole/hr/tube-were identified from 37 soil samples in 22 areas of farmers field throughout country. 2. These identified 5 strains of rhizobium were obtained high nitrate reductase but low ammonium and nitrite oxidase activities. Among 5 strains of rhizobium the Rhizobium japonicum RjK-134 was applied for this green house experiment. 3. Dry matter yield was increased by the combination of inoculation of Rhizobium japonicum RjK-134 with no fertilizer and without nitrogen fertilizer application. However, dry matter yield was decreased with application of N and NPK with inoculation of rhizobium. 4. The concentrations of amide-N and ureide-N were increased in xylem sap than that of root exudate and higher concentration was obtained ar 30 days after planting than flowering stage (45 days after planting). 5. The combination of NPK application with inoculation of Rhrizobium japonicum RjK-134 enhanced the increase of amide-N and ureide-N concentration in xylem sap and root exudate. 6. High ammonium-N concentration in xylem sap and root exudate were obtained in combination with without-fertilizer under no inoculation of rhizobium and N and NPK application with inoculation of rhizobium.

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Simulation and Sensitivity Analysis of the Air Separation Unit for SNG Production Relative to Air Boosting Ratios (SNG 생산용 공기분리공정의 공기 재 압축비에 따른 민감도 분석)

  • Kim, Mi-yeong;Joo, Yong-Jin;Seo, Dong Kyun;Shin, Jugon
    • KEPCO Journal on Electric Power and Energy
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.173-179
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    • 2019
  • Cryogenic air separation unit produces various gases such as $N_2$, $O_2$, and Ar by liquefying air. The process also varies with diverse production conditions. The one for SNG production among them has lower efficiency compared to other air separation unit because it requires ultrapure $O_2$ with purity not lower than 99.5%. Among factors that reduce the efficiency of air separation unit, power consumption due to compress air and heat duty of double column were representatives. In this study, simulation of the air separation unit for SNG production was carry out by using ASEPN PLUS. In the results of the simulation, 18.21 kg/s of at least 99.5% pure $O_2$ was produced and 33.26 MW of power was consumed. To improve the energy efficiency of air separation unit for SNG production, the sensitivity analysis for power consumption, purities and flow rate of $N_2$, $O_2$ production in the air separation unit was performed by change of air boosting ratios. The simulated model has three types of air with different pressure levels and two air boosting ratio. The air boosting ratio means flow rate ratio of air by recompressing in the process. As increasing the first air boosting ratio, $N_2$ flow rate which has purity of 99.9 mol% over increase and $O_2$ flow rate and purity decrease. As increasing the second air boosting ratio, $N_2$ flow rate which has purity of 99.9 mol% over decreases and $O_2$ flow rate increases but the purity of $O_2$ decreases. In addition, power consumption of compressing to increase in the two cases but results of heat duty in double column were different. The heat duty in double column decreases as increasing the first air boosting ratio but increases as increasing the second air boosting ratio. According to the results of the sensitivity analysis, the optimum air boosting ratios were 0.48 and 0.50 respectively and after adjusting the air boosting ratios, power consumption decreased by approximately 7% from $0.51kWh/O_2kg$ to $0.47kWh/O_2kg$.

A Case Study of Digital Media Usage Applied Experiential Elements - Focused on Beauty Brand Marketing - (체험적 요소가 적용된 디지털 미디어 활용 사례 연구 - 뷰티 브랜드 마케팅 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Ah-rham;Kim, Bo-yeun
    • Journal of Communication Design
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    • v.55
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    • pp.240-249
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    • 2016
  • This study focused on cases about user experience using digital media as a marketing. The recent convergence of various types of media is resulting in new types of content. In a situation where approaching consumers through digital and virtual means is no longer an alternative or an option but a necessity, customers must be influenced and stimulated using various types of digital media. Because modern consumers prefer to participate actively rather than to be passively exposed to information, there is a need to maximize and optimize the consumer's experience using digital media. In this research, consumer experiences that utilized digital media were examined, and these case studies were analyzed from an experiential marketing perspective. How the 5 different types of Experiential Marketing proposed by Bernd Schmitt and Digital medias were combined in the digital marketing campaigns was examined. The case studies analyzed in this research were chosen out of widely popular digital marketing campaigns ran by beauty brands that used various experimental marketing types, such as 'Make-up Genius' of L'Or?al, 'Google Glass Tutorials' of Yves Saint Laurent and 'Digital Runway Bar' of The Burberry Beauty Box. This study classified that case samples into paid media, earned media and owned media based on sense, feel, think, act and relate that are the strategic experiential modules of Bernd Schmitt. This study could be confirmed various customer experience as a sense, feel, think, act and relate through that cases using digital media technology and marketing element of digital media. Through the process of examining which digital media types each marketing campaign utilized and how these types of digital marketing were combined, this research is significant in that it helps for the understanding of the current state of digital marketing and in that it can serve as the foundation for future research of efficient digital marketing.