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Comparison of Yield, Physico-chemical and Sensory Characteristics for Chicken Surimi Manufactured by Alkaline Adjustment with Different Raw Materials (원료육 종류에 따라 알칼리 조절법으로 제조한 계육 수리미의 수율, 이화학적 및 관능적 특성 비교)

  • Jin, Sang-Keun;Kim, Il-Suk;Kim, Dong-Hoon;Jeong, Ki-Jong;Choi, Yeung-Joon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.431-440
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to compare of yield, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics for chicken surimi manufactured by alkaline (pH 11) adjustment with different raw materials. Four experimental groups were surimi with chicken breast (T1) and chicken leg (T2) by spent hen, SF-MDCM (T3) and JY-MDCM (T4). Yield was higher in order of T1>T2>T3>T4 (p<0.05). The yield, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of T1 were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Especially, $L^*$ and W value, shear force, textural properties, folding test, breaking force, gel strength, breaking $force{\times}deformation$, flavor, color and overall acceptability were higher in T1 but ar value, cooking loss, collagen and myoglobin content of T1 were lower than those of other treatments (p<0.05). Deformation, aroma, juiciness, tenderness were higher but met-myoglobin and yield of T4 were lower than those of T2 and T3 (p<0.05). Crude fat cooking loss and met-myoglobin content were higher in T2 but $b^*$ value, brittleness, hardness, gumminess, chewiness, folding test, breaking $force{\times}deformation$ and aroma of T2 were lower than those of other treatments (p<0.05). pH, collagen and moisture content and br value were higher but crude protein, folding test, $L^*$ and W value, cohesiveness, tenderness of T3 were lower than those of other treatmene (p<0.05). Correlation coefficients (r>0.8) between folding test and other items was positive in crude protein $L^*$ value, shear force and cohesiveness but negative in moisture content (p<0.05).

Water quality prediction of inflow of the Yongdam Dam basin and its reservoir using SWAT and CE-QUAL-W2 models in series to climate change scenarios (SWAT 및 CE-QUAL-W2 모델을 연계 활용한 기후변화 시나리오에 따른 용담댐 유입수 및 호내 수질 변화 예측)

  • Park, Jongtae;Jang, Yujin;Seo, Dongil
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.50 no.10
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    • pp.703-714
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    • 2017
  • This paper analyzes the impact of two climate change scenarios on flow rate and water quality of the Yongdam Dam and its basin using CE-QUAL-W2 and SWAT, respectively. Under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios by IPCC, simulations were performed for 2016~2095, and the results were rearranged into three separate periods; 2016~2035, 2036~2065 and 2066~2095. Also, the result of each year was divided as dry season (May~Oct) and wet season (Nov~Apr) to account for rainfall effect. For total simulation period, arithmetic average of flow rate and TSS (Total Suspended Solid) and TP (Total Phosphorus) were greater for RCP 4.5 than those of RCP 8.5, whereas TN (Total Nitrogen) showed contrary results. However, when averaged within three periods and rainfall conditions the tendencies were different from each other. As the scenarios went on, the number of rainfall days has decreased and the rainfall intensities have increased. These resulted in waste load discharge from the basin being decreased during the dry period and it being increased in the wet period. The results of SWAT model were used as boundary conditions of CE-QUAL-W2 model to predict water level and water quality changes in the Yongdam Dam. TSS and TP tend to increase during summer periods when rainfalls are higher, while TN shows the opposite pattern due to its weak absorption to particulate materials. Therefore, the climate change impact must be carefully analyzed when temporal and spatial conditions of study area are considered, and water quantity and water quality management alternatives must be case specific.

Carbon nanotube field emission display

  • Chil, Won-Bong;Kim, Jong-Min
    • Electrical & Electronic Materials
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    • v.12 no.7
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    • pp.7-11
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    • 1999
  • Fully sealed field emission display in size of 4.5 inch has been fabricated using single-wall carbon nanotubes-organic vehicle com-posite. The fabricated display were fully scalable at low temperature below 415$^{\circ}C$ and CNTs were vertically aligned using paste squeeze and surface rubbing techniques. The turn-on fields of 1V/${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ and field emis-sion current of 1.5mA at 3V/${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ (J=90${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$/$\textrm{cm}^2$)were observed. Brightness of 1800cd/$m^2$ at 3.7V/${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ was observed on the entire area of 4.5-inch panel from the green phosphor-ITO glass. The fluctuation of the current was found to be about 7% over a 4.5-inch cath-ode area. This reliable result enables us to produce large area full-color flat panel dis-play in the near future. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention because of their unique elec-trical properties and their potential applica-tions [1, 2]. Large aspect ratio of CNTs together with high chemical stability. ther-mal conductivity, and high mechanical strength are advantageous for applications to the field emitter [3]. Several results have been reported on the field emissions from multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs) and single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) grown from arc discharge [4, 5]. De Heer et al. have reported the field emission from nan-otubes aligned by the suspension-filtering method. This approach is too difficult to be fully adopted in integration process. Recently, there have been efforts to make applications to field emission devices using nanotubes. Saito et al. demonstrated a car-bon nanotube-based lamp, which was oper-ated at high voltage (10KV) [8]. Aproto-type diode structure was tested by the size of 100mm $\times$ 10mm in vacuum chamber [9]. the difficulties arise from the arrangement of vertically aligned nanotubes after the growth. Recently vertically aligned carbon nanotubes have been synthesized using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition(CVD) [6, 7]. Yet, control of a large area synthesis is still not easily accessible with such approaches. Here we report integra-tion processes of fully sealed 4.5-inch CNT-field emission displays (FEDs). Low turn-on voltage with high brightness, and stabili-ty clearly demonstrate the potential applica-bility of carbon nanotubes to full color dis-plays in near future. For flat panel display in a large area, car-bon nanotubes-based field emitters were fabricated by using nanotubes-organic vehi-cles. The purified SWNTs, which were syn-thesized by dc arc discharge, were dispersed in iso propyl alcohol, and then mixed with on organic binder. The paste of well-dis-persed carbon nanotubes was squeezed onto the metal-patterned sodalime glass throuhg the metal mesh of 20${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ in size and subse-quently heat-treated in order to remove the organic binder. The insulating spacers in thickness of 200${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ are inserted between the lower and upper glasses. The Y\ulcornerO\ulcornerS:Eu, ZnS:Cu, Al, and ZnS:Ag, Cl, phosphors are electrically deposited on the upper glass for red, green, and blue colors, respectively. The typical sizes of each phosphor are 2~3 micron. The assembled structure was sealed in an atmosphere of highly purified Ar gas by means of a glass frit. The display plate was evacuated down to the pressure level of 1$\times$10\ulcorner Torr. Three non-evaporable getters of Ti-Zr-V-Fe were activated during the final heat-exhausting procedure. Finally, the active area of 4.5-inch panel with fully sealed carbon nanotubes was pro-duced. Emission currents were character-ized by the DC-mode and pulse-modulating mode at the voltage up to 800 volts. The brightness of field emission was measured by the Luminance calorimeter (BM-7, Topcon).

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The Spatial Characteristics of Vertical Accretion Rate in a Coastal Wetland - In case of Sunchon bay estuarine marsh, south coast of Korea - (해안습지 성장률의 공간적 특성에 관한 연구 - 순천만 염하구 해안습지를 사례로 -)

  • Park, Eui-Joon
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.153-168
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    • 2000
  • An estuarine marsh is semi -inclosed inlets, located between coastal and terrestrial environment. The sediment transport by river and tide through tidal river and vertical accretion by sediment accumulation are important processes in estuarine marsh. An analysis of the vertical accretion rate at various time scale is important work for understanding and managing coastal environments. The purpose of this study is to determin the spatial characteristics of vertical accretion rate in an estuarine marsh, Sunchon Bay, in the southern coastal region of Korean peninsula. The methods of analysis are sedimentation rate by individual tidal cycle, annual accretion rate, concentration of total suspended load in water column. Spatial characteristics of sedimentation rate by individual tidal cycle was investigated using 30 filter paper traps. Sedimentation rate by individual tidal cycle at levee edge was higher than that at back marsh. The sedimentation rate decreased with distance from estuarine front. Levee effect and proximity to the turbidity maximum zone result in a higher sedimentation rate in the levee edge. There is a weak relation-ships between tidal regime and sedimentation rate by individual tidal cycle. Spatial cahracteristics of annual accretion rate was investigared using 30 artificial marker plots. Annual accretion rate at back marsh($1.5{\sim}3.5cm/yr$) was higher than that at tidal river levee edge($0.8{\sim}3.0cm/yr$). Total suspended load (TSL) concentrations in water column also indicate this spatial characteristics of annual accretion rate. TSL concentration in water column leaving the vegetation part dramatically decreased. There is a very strong relationship between the concentration of suspended load and accretion rate. These results indicate that annual accretion rate is controlled by vegetation cover and proximity to the turbidity maximum zone. This difference of spatial characteristics of vertical accretion rate ar various time-scale was due to the fact that surface sediment of levee edge was eroded by tide and other factors. The major findings are as follows. First, the spatial characteristics of vertical accretion rate are different from various time-scale. Second, the major mechanism for the vertical accretion rate in this region is suspended load trapping by vegetation. Third, this region is primarily a depositional regime over the time-scale of the present data Fourth, this estuarine marsh is accreting at rates beyond other area.

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Neutralization of Acid Rock Drainage from the Dongrae Pyrophyllite Deposit: A Study on Behavior of Heavy Metals (동래 납석광산 산성 광석배수의 중화실험: 중금속의 거동 특성 규명)

  • 염승준;윤성택;김주환;박맹언
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.68-76
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    • 2002
  • In this study, we have investigated the geochemical behavior and fate of heavy metals in acid rock drainage (ARD). The ARD was collected from the area of the former Dongrae pyrophyllite mine. The Dongrae Creek waters were strongly acidic (pH : 2.3~4.2) and contained high concentrations of $SO_4$, Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd, due to the influence of ARD generated from weathering of pyrite-rich pyrophyllite ores. However, the water quality gradually improved as the water flows downstream. In view of the change of mole fractions of dissolved Fe, Al and Mn, the generated ARD was initially both Fe- and AA-ich but progressively evolved to more Al-rich toward the confluence with the uncontaminated Suyoung River. As the AR3 (pH 2.3) mixed with the uncontaminated waters (pH 6.5), the pH increased up to 4.2, which caused precipitation of $SO_4$-rich Fe hydroxysulfate as a red-colored, massive ferricrete precipitate throughout the Dongrae Creek. Accompanying the precipitation of ferricrete, the Dongrae Creek water progressively changed to more Al-rich toward downstream sites. At the mouth of the Dongrae Creek, it (pH 3.4) mixed with the Suyoung River (pH 6.9), where pH increased to 5.7, causing precipitation of Al hydroxysulfate (white precipitates). Neutralization of the ARD-contaminated waters in the laboratory caused the successive formation of Fe precipitates at pH<3.5 and Al precipitates at higher pH (4~6). Manganese compounds were precipitated at pH>6. The removal of trace metals was dependent on the precipitation of these compounds, which acted as sorbents. The pHs for 50% sorption ($pH_{50}$) in Fe-rich and Al-rich waters were respectively 3.2 and 4.5 for Pb, 4.5 and 5.8 for Cu, 5.2 and 7.4 for Cd, and 5.8 and 7.0 for Zn. This indicates that the trace metals were sorbed preferentially with increasing pH in the general order of Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn and that the sorption of trace metals in Al-rich water occurred at higher pH than those in Fe-rich water. The results of this study demonstrated that the partitioning of trace metals in ARD is not only a function of pH, but also depends on the chemical composition of the water.

Effect of Moutan Cortex Radicis on gene expression profile of differentiated PC12 rat cells oxidative-stressed with hydrogen peroxide (모단피의 PC12 cell 산화억제 효과 및 neuronal 유전자 발현 profile 분석에 대한 연구)

  • Kim Hyun Hee;Rho Sam Woong;Na Youn Gin;Bae Hyun Su;Shin Min Kyu;Kim Chung Suk;Hong Moo Chang
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.529-541
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    • 2003
  • Yukmijihwang-tang has been widely used as an and-aging herbal medicine for hundred years in Asian countries. Numerous studies show that Yukmijihwangtang has anti-oxidative effect both in vivo and in vitro. It has been reported that Moutan Cortex Radicis extract (MCR) was the most effective herb in Yukmijihwang-tang on undifferentiated PC12 cells upon oxidative-stressed with hydrogen peroxide. The purpose of this study is to; 1) evaluate the recovery of neuronal damage by assessing the anti-oxidant effect of MCR on PC12 cells differentiated with nerve growth factor (NGF), 2) identify candidate genes responsible for anti-oxidative effect on differentiated PC12 cells by oligonucleotide chip microarray. PC12 cells, which were differentiated by treating with NGF, were treated without or with hydrogen peroxide in the presence or absence of various concentration of MCR. Cell survival was determined by using MTS assay. Measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined using the H2DCFDA assay The viability of cells treated with MCR was significantly recovered from stressed PC12 cell. In addition, wide rage of concentrations of MCR shows dose-dependent inhibitory effect on ROS production in oxidative-stressed cells. Total RNAs of cells without treatment(Control group), only treated with H₂O₂ (stressed group) and treated with both H₂O₂ and of MCR (MCR group) were isolated, and cDNAs was synthesized using oligoT7(dT) primer. The fragmented cRNAs, synthesized from cDNAs, were applied to Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Neurobiology U34 Array. mRNA of Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta subunit(CaMKII), neuron glucose transporter (GLUT3) and myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein(MOG) were downregulated in Stressed group comparing to Control group. P2X2-5 receptor (P2X2R-5), P2X2-4 receptor (P2X2R-4), c-fos, 25 kDa synaptosomal attachment protein(SNAP-25a) and GLUT3 were downregulated, whereas A2 adenosine receptor (A2AR), cathechol-O-methyltransferase(COMT), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), EST223333, heme oxygenase (HO), VGF, UI-R-CO-ja-a-07-0-Ul.s1 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were upregulated in MCA group comparing to Control group. Expression of Putative potassium channel subunit protein (ACK4), P2X2A-5, P2X2A-4, Interferon-gamma inducing factor isoform alpha precursor (IL-18α), EST199031, P2XR, P2X2 purinoceptor isoform e (P2X2R-e), Precursor interleukin 18 (IL-18) were downregulated, whereas MOO, EST223333, GLUT-1, MIF, Neuronatin alpha, UI-R-C0-ja-a-07-0-Ul.s1, A2. adenosine receptor, COMT, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), HO, VGF, A rat novel protein which is expressed with nerve injury (E12625) were upregulated in MCR group comparing to Stressed group. The results suggest that decreased viability and AOS production of PC12 cell by H₂O₂ may be, at lease, mediated by impaired glucose transporter expression. It is implicated that the MCR treatment protect PC12 cell from oxidative stress via following mechanisms; improving glucose transport into the cell, enhancing expression of anti-oxidative genes and protecting from dopamine cytotoxicity by increment of COMT and MIF expression. The list of differentially expressed genes may implicate further insight on the action and mechanism behind the anti-oxidative effects of herbal extract Moutan Cortex Radicis.

A Development of a Mixed-Reality (MR) Education and Training System based on user Environment for Job Training for Radiation Workers in the Nondestructive Industry (비파괴산업 분야 방사선작업종사자 직장교육을 위한 사용자 환경 기반 혼합현실(MR) 교육훈련 시스템 개발)

  • Park, Hyong-Hu;Shim, Jae-Goo;Park, Jeong-kyu;Son, Jeong-Bong;Kwon, Soon-Mu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.45-54
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    • 2021
  • This study was written to create educational content in non-destructive fields based on Mixed Reality. Currently, in the field of radiation, there is almost no content for educational Mixed Reality-based educational content. And in the field of non-destructive inspection, the working environment is poor, the number of employees is often 10 or less for each manufacturer, and the educational infrastructure is not built. There is no practical training, only practical training and safety education to convey information. To solve this, it was decided to develop non-destructive worker education content based on Mixed Reality. This content was developed based on Microsoft's HoloLens 2 HMD device. It is manufactured based on the resolution of 1280 ⁎ 720, and the resolution is different for each device, and the Side is created by aligning the Left, Right, Bottom, and TOP positions of Anchor, and the large image affects the size of Atlas. The large volume like the wallpaper and the upper part was made by replacing it with UITexture. For UI Widget Wizard, I made Label, Buttom, ScrollView, and Sprite. In this study, it is possible to provide workers with realistic educational content, enable self-directed education, and educate with 3D stereoscopic images based on reality to provide interesting and immersive education. Through the images provided in Mixed Reality, the learner can directly operate things through the interaction between the real world and the Virtual Reality, and the learner's learning efficiency can be improved. In addition, mixed reality education can play a major role in non-face-to-face learning content in the corona era, where time and place are not disturbed.

Influence of Anatomy, Associated Anomalies, Age, and Surgical Methods on the Surgical Results of Aortic Coarctation (대동맥교약증 환아의 해부학적 형태, 동반심기형, 연령, 수술방법등이 수술결과에 미치는 영향)

  • 이정렬;김혜순
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.363-372
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    • 1997
  • One hundred forty-four patients underwent operation for coarctation of the aorta at Seoul National University Children's Hospital between June 1986 and Decembsr 1995. Age ranged 0.1 to 191 months. Of these 78.5%(113) were infants. We classified the patients in terms of the anatomic location of coarctatiln and the associatCd anomalies(I[401= primary coarctation, 11(741=isthmic hypoplasia, lIIf30)=tubular hypoplasia involving transverse arch, Ar63 =with ventricular septal defect, B(28)=with other major cardiac defects). Subcalvian flap coarctoplasty(60), resection & anastomosis(44), extended aortoplasty(26), and onlay patch(14) were used as surgical methods. Overall operative mortality was 16.0(23/144)%. The hospital mortality was signific'antly higher in patheints with type 111, subtype B, younger age(under 3 months), extended aortoplasty(p(0.01). However, one-stage total repair in patients with subtype A or B were not found to be a predictor of hospital death. Restenosis had occured in 18 patients among 121 survivals(14. 9%). The mean follow-up period was 29.1 $\pm$28.8(0~129.2) months. Preoperative, immediate postoperative(within 3 months after operation) and postoperative(later than 6 months after operation) echocardiographic data on the dimensions of ascending aorta(AA), transverse arch(TA), an4 aortic isthmus(Al) were available in 77 patients(I=20, ll=42, 111= 15). Preoperative and postoperative aortic isthmus(All) and tra sverse arch indices(TAI), defined as TAIAA & AIIAA respectively, were compared. Immediate postoperative All in type 1, II and TAI in type 111 were significantly smaller in stenotic than non-stenotic group suggesting incomplete relieves of stenotic segment Younger age, subclavian coarctoplasty in patient under 3 months of age were round to be the risk factors for restenosis in this series. In conclusion, We found that aortic arch index and transverse arch index can be a useful tool to figure out the anatomic and clinical characteristics of the patients with aortic coarctation, and that anatomy, associated anomalies, age, and surgical methods may influence the surgical outcome of the coarctation repair.

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Birth and Infant Death Reporting System via Computer Network (출생 및 영아사망 신고체계 및 전산정보체계 개발)

  • Park, Jung-Han;Lee, Young-Sook;Rhee, Jung-Ae;Cho, Hyun;Chung, Young-Hae;Park, Soon-Woo;Jun, Hae-Ri
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.125-148
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    • 1998
  • Accurate vital statistics are essential for a national health planning and evaluation. Among various vital statistics, birth and death rates, and infant and matemal mortality rates together with the causes of death are the very basic ones for above purposes as well as for the maternal and child health management. These statistics are based on the birth and death reports. It is required by law to report every birth and death within one month after its occurrence. However, in case of a neonatal death occurring prior to the birth report, most of the birth and death are not reported. Thus accurate infant and maternal mortality rates are not available yet in Korea. The main objective of this study is to develop a birth and infant death reporting system via computer network. We designed a new birth report form based on the current form and data from the analysis of medical record forms of 14 hospitals. A new form is basically addition of essential medical information to the current birth report form. Since a revision of the rules and regulations related wtih the birth report is necessary to use a new form, we kept the current from intact to make it acceptable to the government office for a field trial. We also developed computer programs for data input for birth and death reports at a medical faciltiy, data processing for production of maternal and child health indices at a health center, and management of maternal and child health services including immunization and postantal care at health center. The birth certificate and birth report can be printed out at a medical facility. The computer packages were programmed by Borland Delphi 3.0 and can be run under Windows 95 system. We proposed a new birth and death reporting system via computer network after a field trial for data input, transmission, and processing. The medical and demographic data o birth and death at medical facilities will be sent to health centers directly via computer network. The health center will retain the medical data for analysis and forward only the data for birth and death reports required by current regulations to the Dong, Up, or Myun Office. Once the birth or death is reported via computer network to the Dong Office, then the Dong Office will notify the baby's mother of the birth report and request to submit the baby's name by mail. When the baby's name its submitted. the Dong Office will forward the birth reports to the Common Court and Statistics Agency in the same way as the current system, Upon the completion of birth registration of the Common Court, the court will issue the birth certificate to mother which will be used in lieu of the family record. The advantages of proposed birth and death reporting system via computer network ar as follows ; I) The accuracy, timing, and completeness of reporting will be improved and more accurate maternal and child health indices can be obtained, ii) The maternal and child health services of health center will be obtained, iii) Epidemiologic data for pregnancy and birth can be obtained, iv) Manpower for birth and death reporting will be saved.

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Effects of Sulfur Dioxide Exposure in Histological Structure and Mucosubstances of the Nasal Respiratory Mucosa of Rat ($SO_2$ 흰쥐 비강 호흡부 점막의 조직학적 구조 및 점액질에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 정권순;정길남;조기진;이응희;조운복
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.582-594
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    • 2001
  • This experiment was performed to investigate the effects of sulfur dioxide on the histological changes, properties of mucosubstances and glycoconjugates of the nasal respiratory mucosa in the rat. Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing about 200~250g were divided into a control group and SO$_2$ exposed groups. Again SO$_2$ exposed groups were divided into 10 ppm, 25 ppm, 50 ppm, 100 ppm, and 200 ppm subgroups, according to concentrations of SO$_2$ and each SO$_2$exposed groups were divided into 1, 3 and 6 hours groups. For the histological changes, hematoxylin-eosin(H-E) and periodic acid Schiff's(PAS) stainings were used, and for the properties of mucosubstances, PAS, alcian blue (AB) pH 2.5, pH 2.5-PAS, AB pH 1.0 and aldehyde fuchsin (AF) pH1.7-AB pH 2.5 were used. In all the SO$_2$ exposed groups, loss of cilia and detachment of epithelial cells, vacuolation of goblet cells were observed in the respiratory epithelium while epithelial squamous metaplasia and intraepthelial mucous cells were observed in the higher concentration of SO$_2$ and the degree of the loss cilia was higher according as concentration was higher and exposed time was longer. The intraepitheial mucous cells appeared most remarkable in the 50 ppm SO$_2$ exposed group. The numbers of goblet cells and acini of nasal septal gland were varied according to concentration of SO$_2$ and exposed time, but the numbers in the 25 ppm and 50 ppm, SO$_2$ exposed increased remarkably. However, the numbers in the 100 ppm and 200 ppm SO$_2$ exposed group had a tendency to decrease noticeably, or disappeared.

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