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Study on the Human Influence according to RF Pulse Intensity by use Dental Implant on BRAIN MRI: Using the XFDTD Program (Brain MRI 검사 시 치아 임플란트 시술유무와 RF Pulse 세기에 따른 인체 영향에 관한 연구: XFDTD 프로그램을 이용)

  • Choe, Dea-yeon;Kim, Dong-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.361-370
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    • 2017
  • In the Brain MRI, RF Pulse is irradiated on the human body in order to acquire an image. At this time, a considerable part of the irradiated RF Pulse energy is absorbed as it is in our body. This will raise the temperature of the human body, but depending on the extent of exposure, it will affect the human body. The change of the SAR and the temperature of the head according to the change of the magnetic field strength is examined. And to investigate the difference in results depending on the use of dental implant. In the human head model, 64 MHz RF Pulse frequency generated from 1.5 T, 128 MHz RF Pulse frequency generated from 3.0 T, and 298 MHz RF Pulse frequency generated from 7.0 T send a frequency and experiment was performed using dental implant using the XFDTD program, we measured the SAR and body temperature changes around the head. The SAR value showed up to about 5800 times the difference at the RF Pulse frequency of 256 MHz, when with dental implant than without dental implant and as the frequency increased, the use of the dental implant increased difference in the SAR value. The change of the temperature of the head showed a temperature rise nearly 2 to 4 times when with dental implant than without dental implant. As the RF Pulse frequency increase, the SAR value increase, but the change of the temperature of the head decrease. Because of as the frequency increase, wavelength is smaller and the more the amount absorbed by the surface of the human. Physiological and biochemical studies of the human body ar necessary through studies of the presence of dental implant and the cause of reaction caused by change in the RF Pulse frequency.

Chemistry of mist deposition of organic polymer PEDOT:PSS on crystalline Si

  • Shirai, Hajime;Ohki, Tatsuya;Liu, Qiming;Ichikawa, Koki
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • 2016.02a
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    • pp.388-388
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    • 2016
  • Chemical mist deposition (CMD) of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was investigated with cavitation frequency f, solvent, flow rate of nitrogen, substrate temperature $T_s$, and substrate dc bias $V_s$ as variables for efficient PEDOT:PSS/crystalline (c-)Si heterojunction solar cells (Fig. 1). The high-speed camera and differential mobility analysis characterizations revealed that average size and flux of PEDOT:PSS mist depend on f, solvent, and $V_s$. The size distribution of mist particles including EG/DI water cosolvent is also shown at three different $V_s$ of 0, 1.5, and 5 kV for a f of 3 MHz (Fig. 2). The size distribution of EG/DI water mist without PEDOT:PSS is also shown at the bottom. A peak maximum shifted from 300-350 to 20-30 nm with a narrow band width of ~150 nm for PEDOT:PSS solution, whose maximum number density increased significantly up to 8000/cc with increasing $V_s$. On the other hand, for EG/water cosolvent mist alone, the peak maximum was observed at a 72.3 nm with a number density of ~700/cc and a band width of ~160 nm and it decreased markedly with increasing $V_s$. These findings were not observed for PEDOT:PSS/EG/DI water mist. In addition, the Mie scattering image of PEDOT:PSS mist under white bias light was not observed at $V_s$ above 5 kV, because the average size of mist became smaller. These results imply that most of solvent is solvated in PEDOT:PSS molecule and/or solvent is vaporized. Thus, higher f and $V_s$ generate preferentially fine mist particle with a narrower band width. Film deposition occurred when $V_s$ was impressed on positive to a c-Si substrate at a Ts of $30-40^{\circ}C$, whereas no deposition of films occurred on negative, implying that negatively charged mist mainly provide the film deposition. The uniform deposition of PEDOT:PSS films occurred on textured c-Si(100) substrate by adjusting $T_s$ and $V_s$. The adhesion of CMD PEDOT:PSS to c-Si enhanced by $V_s$ conspicuously compared to that of spin-coated film. The CMD PEDOT:PSS/c-Si solar cell devices on textured c-Si(100) exhibited a ${\eta}$ of 11.0% with the better uniformity of the solar cell parameters. Furthermore, ${\eta}$ increased to 12.5% with a $J_{sc}$ of $35.6mA/cm^2$, a $V_{oc}$ of 0.53 V, and a FF of 0.67 with an antireflection (AR) coating layer of 20-nm-thick CMD molybdenum oxide $MoO_x$ (n= 2.1) using negatively charged mist of 0.1 wt% 12 Molybdo (VI) phosphoric acid n-Hydrate) $H_3(PMo_{12}O_40){\cdot}nH_2O$ in methanol. CMD. These findings suggest that the CMD with negatively charged mist has a great potential for the uniform deposition of organic and inorganic on textured c-Si substrate by adjusting $T_s$ and $V_s$.

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A Comparative Study of CTDI and the Effective Dose and the SNR according to the Area in the Abdominal CT (복부CT에서 면적에 따른 CTDI와 유효선량 및 SNR의 비교 연구)

  • Choi, Sung-Jun;Kang, Jun-Guk;Kim, Su-In;Kim, Youn-Ho;Lee, Do-Gyeong;Jung, Jin-Gyung;Cho, Ar-A;Jang, Jae-Hyeok;Kweon, Dae-Cheol
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.245-252
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    • 2015
  • To obtain the best SNR (signal to noise ratio) due to changes in CTDI (computed tomography dose index) made for the purpose of setting the optimum image obtained by reducing the dose in abdominal CT. Abdominal CT scans of 59 patients a $400-499cm^2$ (n = 12), $500-599cm^2$ (n = 21), $600-699cm^2$ (n = 17), $700-799cm^2$ (n = 9) were separated by four groups and the effective dose was used in the Excel to get the area of the patient using the ImageJ program. Patients of CTDI, DLP, SNR, the effective dose were analyzed. Abdominal CT area was increased to 13 mGy in CTDI is 7.3 mGy, DLP to 732 in $394.4mGy{\cdot}cm$, also effective dose was 5.9 mSv increase in 11mSv. SNR is 15 dB was maintained at 12.7. CTDI according to the average of the abdominal area of 8.9 mGy, the average of the DLP was $481.54mGy{\cdot}cm$, the effective dose is calculated to be 7.2 mSV. Effective dose was calculated by multiplying the load factor of DLP in the abdomen showed no statistically significant difference of (p < .05), there was a significant difference in SNR (p > . 05). To improve image quality of abdominal CT scan image in consideration of the CTDI according to the volume of the patient it should be able to reduce the radiation exposure of the patients.

Design of the Condenser and Automation of a Solar Powered Water Pump (태양열 물펌프의 운전 자동화 설계)

  • Kim Y. B.;Son J. G.;Lee S. K.;Kim S. T.;Lee Y. K.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.141-154
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    • 2004
  • The solar powered water pump is very ideal equipment because solar power is more intensive when the water is more needed in summer and it is very helpful in the rural area, in which the electrical power is not available. The average so]ar radiation energy is 3.488 kWh/($m^2{\cdot}day$) in Korea. In this study, the automatic control logic and system of the water pump driven by the radiation energy were studied, designed, assembled, tested and analyzed for realizing the solar powered water pump. The experimental system was operated automatically and the cycle was continued. The average quantity of the water pumped per cycle was about 5,320 cc. The cycle time was about 4.9 minutes. The thermal efficiency of the system was about $0.030\%$. The pressure level of the n-pentane vapour in flash tank was 150$\%$450 hPa(gauge) which was set by the computer program for the control of the vapour supply. The pressure in the condenser and air tank during cycles was maintained as about 600 hPa and 1,200 hPa respectively. The water could be pumped by the amount of 128kg/($m^2{\cdot}day$) with the efficiency of $0.1\%$ and the pumping head of 10 m for the average solar energy in Korea.

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Effect of Planting and Harvesting Time of Vegetative Nodes and Rhizomes on Yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort (토천궁(土川芎) 노두(蘆頭)와 근경(根莖)의 재식시기(栽植時期) 및 수확연차(收穫年次)가 수량(收量)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Chung-Guk;Lee, Seoung-Tack;Im, Dae-Joon
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.181-186
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    • 1994
  • Vegetative node and rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. were planted in spring and autumn and harvested after one and two years to determine the appropriate harvesting time which produced a high yield. Plant height, leaf number and branch number per plant were increased in order of rhizome planted in spring and harvested after two year(RST), rhizome planted in autumn and harvested after one year(RAO), vegetative node planted in autumn and harvested after one year(VNAO), and vegetative node planted in spring and harvested after one year(VNSO). Leaf area index and dry leaf weight in VNSO were highest on August 16, but dry weights of stem and rhizome was increased until harvesting time. The appropriate harvesting time was October 17, in RST, November 9 in RAO and VNAO, and November 13 in VNSO. Yield in autumn planting was more increased than that in spring planting and also that in RST was 443kg per 10a and increased by 2.8 times compared to RAO. However the yield in the rhizome planting was more increased by 17 percent than the vegetative node planting, the latter planting was inexpensive and economic for purchasing seed materials.

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Use of Auxins for Rhizome Propagation and Shading Effect on Growth of Asarum sieboldii Mio. (세신(細辛)의 근경삽(根莖揷)번식에 있어서 오옥신의 이용과 차광재배(遮光栽培))

  • Kim, Sun-Gon;Park, Chung-Heon;Choi, Dong-Geun;Hwang, Chang-Ju;Chin, Seong-Kye
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.198-204
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    • 1994
  • This study was carried out to investigate the auxin(IAA, IBA, NAA) treatment and the effect of shading rate in Asarum sieboldii. The results obtained were summerized as follows: By the soaking treatment of auxins to the cutted rhizome enhanced root growth and plant weight. By the increment of shading rate, plant growth was much better compare to the control. Leaf fallen times appeared about 20 days more earlier at plain area then the alpain area. Root yield was much higher by the treatment of shading then the conventional cultivation so it seem to be the useful for large scale cultivations of A. sieboldii.

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Determination of Tumor Boundaries on CT Images Using Unsupervised Clustering Algorithm (비교사적 군집화 알고리즘을 이용한 전산화 단층영상의 병소부위 결정에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Kyung-Hoo;Ji, Young-Hoon;Lee, Dong-Han;Yoo, Seoung-Yul;Cho, Chul-Koo;Kim, Mi-Sook;Yoo, Hyung-Jun;Kwon, Soo-Il;Chun, Jun-Chul
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.59-66
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    • 2001
  • It is a hot issue to determine the spatial location and shape of tumor boundary in fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). We could get consecutive transaxial plane images from the phantom (paraffin) and 4 patients with brain tumor using helical computed tomography(HCT). K-means classification algorithm was adjusted to change raw data pixel value in CT images into classified average pixel value. The classified images consists of 5 regions that ate tumor region (TR), normal region (NR), combination region (CR), uncommitted region (UR) and artifact region (AR). The major concern was how to separate the normal region from tumor region in the combination area. Relative average deviation analysis was adjusted to alter average pixel values of 5 regions into 2 regions of normal and tumor region to define maximum point among average deviation pixel values. And then we drawn gross tumor volume (GTV) boundary by connecting maximum points in images using semi-automatic contour method by IDL(Interactive Data Language) program. The error limit of the ROI boundary in homogeneous phantom is estimated within ${\pm}1%$. In case of 4 patients, we could confirm that the tumor lesions described by physician and the lesions described automatically by the K-mean classification algorithm and relative average deviation analyses were similar. These methods can make uncertain boundary between normal and tumor region into clear boundary. Therefore it will be useful in the CT images-based treatment planning especially to use above procedure apply prescribed method when CT images intermittently fail to visualize tumor volume comparing to MRI images.

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Study for the Size Reduction of Microstrip Patch Antenna using Corrugation (주름 구조를 이용한 마이크로스트립 패치 안테나의 소형화에 대한 연구)

  • 송무하;우종명
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.192-201
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    • 2003
  • In this paper, to reduce the size of patch, three types of 3-dimensional patch antennas which are one-directionally-corrugaged type, rectangular ring-likely corrugated type, and lattice-likely corrugated type rectangular microstrip patch antennas(MPA) are designed and fabricated at the 1.575 GHz. As the result, one-directionally corrugated rectangular MPA is reduced in the resonant length of patch by 21.4% than that of general plane MPA. -10 dB bandwidth(B.W) is 62 MHz(3.9 %) and this is broader than that(39 MHz, 2.5 %) of plane MPA by 23 MHz(1.5 %). The gain is 5.8 dBd and this is reduced by 0.9 dB than that(6.7 dBd) of plane MPA. Half power beamwidth(HPBW) is broadened by 18$^{\circ}$ than that of plane MPA in the E-plane and this is due to the reduced length of patch. For rectangular ring-likely corrugated retangular MPA, the patch size is miniaturized by 21.6 % than that of plane MPA. For lattice-likely corrugated rectangular MPA, in the linear polarization, the size of patch is miniaturized by 43.3 % than that of plane MPA. -10 dB B.W is 70 MHz(4.4 %) and this is broadened than that of plane MPA by 31 MHz(2 %). Gain is 2.2 dBd and this is smaller than that of plane MPA by 4.5 dB. HPBW is increased in both E-plane and H-plane by 22$^{\circ}$ and 13$^{\circ}$, respectively. For circular polarization, the size of patch is reduced by 41 % than that by 41 %. The axial ratio(AR) is 0.8 dB at the 1.575 GHz and the axial ratio bandwidth(ARBW) within 2 dB is 20 MHz(1.27 %) and this is increased by 10 MHz(0.63 %) than that 10 MHz(0.63 %) of plane MPA. From all the results above, it is conformed that the proposed antenna has merit in size reduction of patch and in the input impedance B.W, and is more profitable in many application than the general plane type MPA.

Effects of Black Soybean and Fermented Black Soybean Extracts on Proliferation of Human Follicle Dermal Papilla Cells (검은콩과 발효검은콩 추출물이 인간 모유두 세포 성장에 미치는 효과)

  • Choi, Ji-Hye;Lee, Myoungsook;Kim, Hyun Jung;Kwon, Jung Il;Lee, Yunkyoung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.671-680
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to examine the effects and potential mechanisms of action of black soybean extracts and fermented black soybean extracts by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium animals subsp. lactis BB-12 (BB-12) on proliferation of human follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPC). We examined changes in pH, total polyphenol, sugar, and reducing sugar contents according to fermentation period of black soybean extracts. Assay using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide was performed to determine cell toxicity levels of the four black soybean extracts [black soybean water extract (BWE), black soybean ethanol extract (BEE), fermented BWE (F-BEW), and fermented BEE (F-BEE)]. Changes in mRNA expression levels of hair growth promoting factors and hair growth inhibiting factors by the four black soybean extracts were measured by real-time PCR. In addition, phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase family proteins were measured by western blot analysis. As a result, fermentation of black soybeans significantly reduced pH, total polyphenols, and sugar/reducing sugar contents. All four black soybean extracts showed no cellular toxicity in HFDPC. In fact, BEE significantly enhanced cell viability of HFDPC at $100{\mu}g/mL$ compared to control. BWE, BEE, and BWE-F significantly increased mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, and all four extracts increased mRNA expression of fibroblast growth factor. However, mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes were not affected by black soybean extracts in HFDPC. Furthermore, BWE, BEE, and BWE-F significantly increased phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase compared to control. Taken together, we demonstrated that black soybean extracts enhanced proliferation of human follicle dermal papilla cells partially via activation of hair growth promoting factors, although no particular significant effects on proliferation were observed by fermentation of black soybeans.

Waxy Rice Variety-dependent Variations in Physicochemical Characteristics of Sogokju, a Korean Traditional Rice Wine (찰벼 품종에 따른 소곡주의 이화학적 특성)

  • Lee, Jin-Seok;Woo, Koan-Sik;Chun, Ar-Eum;Na, Jang-Yeon;Kim, Kee-Jong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.172-180
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to compare the physicochemical characteristics and sensory quality of Sogokju (Korean traditional rice wine) prepared with waxy rice varieties. Among tested waxy rice varieties, highest protein contents (8.11%) was observed in cv. Sangjuchal, and highest whiteness and L-value were observed in cv. Hwaseonchal, while no significant differences in gelatinization temperature could be observed among tested varieties, and cv. Boseokchal and Sinseonchal exhibited higher breakdown viscosity compared to the others. The alcohol contents of Sogokju with waxy rice varieties ranges from 13.0 to 13.4%, and the brix degree and turbidity were within the range of 20.5 to 24.6 $^{\circ}Bx$, and 0.0344 to 0.0530, respectively. The highest L-value (6.90), b-value (l.45), pH (4.79), total acidity (0.8384%), and glucose content (10.843 g/100 ml) could be observed in Sogokju made with cv. Sangjuchal. The organic acids such as succinic acid, malic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid could be detected in Sogokju. Although no variety-dependant differences in appearance, aroma, and taste could be found in sensory evaluation, Sogokju made with cvs. Sinseonchal, Haepyeongchal, and Hwaseonchal showed higher overall quality than Sogokju made with cv. Dongjinchal, which is most widely used for Sogokju used for Sogokju production nowadays.