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Static and dynamic elastic properties of the Iksan Jurassic Granite, Korea (익산 쥬라기 화강암의 정 및 동탄성학적 특성)

  • Kang, Dong-Hyo;Jung, Tae-Jong;Lee, Jung-Mo
    • Journal of the Korean Geophysical Society
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.99-112
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    • 2000
  • The Iksan Jurassic Granite shows relatively less fractures and homogeneous rock fabrics, and is one of the most popular stone materials for architectures and sculptures. Almost mutually perpendicular rift, grain, and halfway in the Iksan Jurassic Granite are well known to quarrymen based on its splitting directions, and therefore it should exhibit orthorhombic symmetry. Theoretically, there are 9 independent elastic stiffness coefficients $(C_{1111},\;C_{2222},\;C_{3333},\;C_{2323},\;C_{1313},\;C_{1212},\;C_{1122},\;C_{2233},\;and\;C_{1133})$ for orthorhombic anisotropy. In order to characterize the static and dynamic elastic properties of the Iksan Jurassic Granite, triaxial strains under uniaxial compressive stresses and ultrasonic velocities of elastic waves in three different polarizations are measured. Both experiments are carried out with six directional core samples from massive rock body. Using the results of experiments and the densities measured independently, the static and dynamic elastic coefficients are computed by simple mathematical manipulation derived from the governing equations for general anisotropic media. The static elastic coefficients increase ar uniaxial compressive stress rises. Among those, the static elastic coefficients at uniaxial compressive stress of a 24.5 MPa appear to be similar to the dynamic elastic coefficients under ambient condition. Although some deviations are observed, the preferred orientations of microcracks appear to be parallel or subparallel to the rift, the grain, and the hardway from microscopic observation of thin sections. This indicates that the preferred orientations of microcracks cause the elastic anisotropy of the Iksan Jurassic Granite. The results are to be applied to the effective use of the Iksan Jurassic Granite as stone materials, and can be used for the non-destructive safety test.

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The Effect of Au Addition on the Hardening Mechanism in Ag-30wt%Pd-10wt%Cu Alloy (Ag-30wt% Pd-10wt% Cu 3원합금(元合金) 및 Au 첨가합금(添加合金)의 시효경화특성(時效硬化特性))

  • Lee, K.D.;Nam, S.Y.
    • Journal of Technologic Dentistry
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.27-41
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    • 1999
  • The Ag-Pd-Cu alloys containing a small amount of Au is commonly used for dental purposes, because this alloy cheaper than Au-base alloys for clinical use. However, the most important characteristic of this alloy is age-hardenability, which is not exhibited by other Ag-base dental alloys. The specimens used were Ag-30Pd-10Cu ternary alloy and Au addition alloy. These alloys were melted and casted by induction electric furnace and centrifugal casting machine in Ar atmosphere. These specimens were solution treated for 2hr at $800^{\circ}C$ and were then quenched into iced water, and aged at 350-$550^{\circ}C$ Age-hardening characteristic of the small Au-containing Ag-Pd-Cu dental alloys were investigated by means of hardness testing, X-ray diffraction and electron microscope observations, electrical resistance, differential scanning calorimetric, energy dispersed spectra and electron probe microanalysis. Principal results are as follows ; Maximum hardening occured in two co-phases of ${\alpha}_2$ + PdCu In stage II, decomposition of the $\alpha$ solid solution to a PdCu ordered phase($L1_o$ type) and an Ag-rich ${\alpha}_2$ phase occurred and a discontinuous precipitation occurred at the grain boundary. From the electron microscope study, it was concluded that the cause of age-hardening in this alloy is the precipitation of the PdCu redered phase, which has AuCu I type face-centered tetragonal structure. Precipitation procedure was ${\alpha}{\to}{\alpha}_1+PdCu{\to}{\alpha}_2+PdCu$ at Pd/Cu = 3 Pd element of Ag-Pd-Cu alloy is more effective dental alloy on anti-corrosion and is suitable to isothermal ageing at $450^{\circ}C$.

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The Effect of Au Addition on the Hardening Mechanism in Ag-20wt% Pd-20wt% Cu (Ag-20wt% Pd-20wt% Cu 3원합금(元合金) 및 Au첨가합금(添加合金)의 시효경화특성(時效硬化特性))

  • Park, M.H.;Bae, B.J.;Lee, H.S.;Lee, K.D.
    • Journal of Technologic Dentistry
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.21-35
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    • 1997
  • The Ag-Pd-Cu alloys containing a small amount of Au is commonly used for dental purposes, because this alloy is cheaper than Au-base alloys for clinical use. However, the most important characteristic of this alloy is age-hardenability, which is not exhibited by other Ag-base dental alloys. The specimens used were Ag-20Pd-20Cu ternary alloy and Au addition alloy. These alloys were melted and casted by induction electic furace and centrifugal casting machine in Ar atmoshpere. These specimens were solution treated for 2hr at $800^{\circ}C$ and were then quenched into iced water, and aged at $350{\sim}550^{\circ}C$ Age-hardening characteristics of the small Au-containing Ag-pPd-Cu dental alloys were investigated by means of hardness testing, X-ray diffraction and electron microscope observations, electrical resistance, differential scanning calorimetric, emergy dispersed spectra and electron probe microanalysis. Principal results are as follows : Hardening occured in two stages, I. e., stage I in low temperature and stage II in high temperature regions, during continuous aging. The case of hardening in stage I was due to the formation of the Llo type face centered tetragonal PdCu-ordered phase in the grain interior and hardening in stage I was affedted by the Cu concentration. In stage II, decomposition of the $\alpha$ solid solution to a PdCu ordered phase(L1o type) and an Agrich ${\alpha}2$ phase occurred and a discontiunous precipitation occurred at the grain boundary. Form the electron microscope study, it was concluded that the cause of age-hardening in this alloy is the precipitation of the PdCu ordered phase, which has AuCu I type face-centered tetragonal structure. Precipitation procedure was ${\alpha}\to{\alpha}+{\alpha}2+PdCu\to{\alpha}1+{\alpha}2+PdCu$ at Pd/Cu = 1 Ag-Pd-Cu alloy is more effective dental alloy as ageing treatment and is suitable to isothermal ageing at $450^{\circ}C$.

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Development of B4C Thin Films for Neutron Detection (스퍼터링 코팅기법을 이용한 중성자 검출용 B4C 박막 개발)

  • Lim, Chang Hwy;Kim, Jongyul;Lee, Suhyun;Cho, Sang-Jin;Choi, Young-Hyun;Park, Jong-Won;Moon, Myung Kook
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.79-86
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    • 2015
  • $^3He$ gas has been used for neutron monitors as the neutron converter owing to its advantages such as high sensitivity, good ${\gamma}$-discrimination capability, and long-term stability. However, $^3He$ is becoming more difficult to obtain in last few years due to a global shortage of $^3He$ gas. Accordingly, the cost of a neutron monitor using $^3He$ gas as a neutron converter is becoming more expensive. Demand on a neutron monitor using an alternative neutron conversion material is widely increased. $^{10}B$ has many advantages among various $^3He$ alternative materials, as a neutron converter. In order to develop a neutron converter using $^{10}B$ (actually $B_4C$), we calculated the optimal thickness of a neutron converter with a Monte Carlo simulation using MCNP6. In addition, a neutron converter was fabricated by the Ar sputtering method and the neutron signal detection efficiencies were measured with respect to various thicknesses of fabricated a neutron converter. Also, we developed a 2-dimensional multi-wire proportional chamber (MWPC) for neutron beam profile monitoring using the fabricated a neutron converter, and performed experiments for neutron response of the neutron monitor at the 30 MW research reactor HANARO at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The 2-dimensional MWPC with boron ($B_4C$) neutron converter was proved to be useful for neutron beam monitoring, and can be applied to other types of neutron imaging.

Studies on the Strength of Briquette Ash Hardened by Cement (연탄재를 시멘트로서 경화(硬化)시켰을 때의 강도(强度)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Seong-Wan
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.45-55
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    • 1979
  • This study made to find the variation of strengths of briquette ash which were hardened into cement. The briquette ash were mixed with the cement, ((cement (90%)+slaked lime (10%)) and ((cement (80%)+fly ash (20%)) in the ratio of 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:7 and 1:9, respectively, and these were compared with the one made of cement plus standard sand in the strengths of compression, tension and bending at the ages of 7 days and 28 days. The results from the study conducted preliminary without studying the economical aspects or duration of the products are summarized as follows: 1. The compressive strengths of mortar made of 1 to 2 ratios of cement to briquette ash, (cement+slaked lime) to briquette ash and (cement+fly ash) to briquette ash were 84%, 90% and 75% at the age of 7 days and 84.9%, 73.5% and 69.8%, respectively of those of Korean Standard values. 2. The compressive strength s of mortar made of 1 to 2 ratios of cement to briquette ash, (cement+slaked lime) to briquette ash and (cement+fly ash) to briquette ash were 69.3%, 75.1% and 41.3% at the age of 7 days and 56.4%, 49%, and 46.5% at the age of 28 days, respectively of the mortar made of standard sand. 3. The tension strengths of mortar made of 1 to 2 ratios of cement to briquette ash, (cement+slaked lime) to briquette ash, and (cement+fly ash) to briquette ash were 64.4%, 47.1% and 35.4% at the age of 7days and 69.6%, 64.8%, and 57.3%, respectively of that of the mort ar produced with standard sand. 4. The bending strengths of mortar made of 1 to 2 ratios of cement to briquette ash, (cement+slaked lime) to briquette ash, and (cement+fly ash) to briquette ash were 46.3%, 65.9% and 39.1% at the age of 7 days and 89.9%, 96.7%, and 85.1%, respectively of that of mortar produced with standard sand. 5. The bending strength of the mortar was lower than that of cement mortar, when the briquette ash were harqened into cement. However, the mortar produced by such method seemed to be used as the secondary products of cement or concrete. The additional usefullness of the hardened biquette ash can be found in contributing toward the solving the various pollution problems, the saving the labor costs needed to clean-up waste materials, and the saving the construction materials.

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A Study on the Biology of Primary Parasites of the Cow-pea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Aphididae, Homo.) and its Hyperparasites (아카시아진딧물에 기생하는 진디벌과 이의 중기생봉에 관한 연구)

  • Chang Young-Duck;Youn Young-Nam
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.22 no.4 s.57
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    • pp.237-243
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    • 1983
  • A biological study was done on primary parasites and hyperparasites of cow-pea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, collected from Mt. Gyeryong and Daejeon area during the period from April to September 1983 was. The results of mummification of primary parasites, host selectivity between primary parasites and hyperparasites and ratio of mummification, no. of ar chegonia and longevity of important species were obtained as follows; Eight species of Aphidiidae were identified and listed and four of them, Binodoxys nearactaphidis Mackauer, Lipolexis scutellaris Mackauer, Lysiphlebus salicaphis(Fitch)and Trioxys hokkaidensis Takada found for the first time in Korea. Among the 509 mummies collected in the field, adult Aphidiid and adult hyperparasites were $44.8\%,\;and\;43.8\%$, respectively. Lysiphlebus ambiguus, Lysiphlebus salicaphis, Lysiphlebia japonica and Lipolexis scutellaris were a few of important species attacking cow-pea aphid and the rate of their occurrences were $31.6\%,\;18.8\%,\;16.7\%\;and\;11.4\%$, respectively. All the hyperparasites collected from cow-pea aphid were recorded for the first time in Korea; those were Lygocerus testaceimonus Kieffer, Protaphelinus nikolskajae (Jasnosh), Eucoila sp., Gastranscistrus sp., Ardilea convexa(Walker), Asaphes vulgaris Walker. Among the collected hyperparasites, Eucoila sp., A. vulgaris and A. Convexa were dominant species and their occurence rate was $39.9\%,\;34.1\%\;and\;19.7\%$, respectively. As a results of analysis on parasite-hyperparasite interrelationship in cow-pea aphid, Lipolexis scutellaris was attacked from 3 out of 6 hyperparasites and the others was attacked from almost all the hyperparasites. Lysiphlebus ambiguus was higher than Lysiphlebia japonica in the ability of parasitism. There was no difference between Lysiphlebus ambiguus(272) and Lysiphlebia japonica(279) in number of archegonia, but L. ambiguus$(66.9\%)$ was higher than L. japonica$(43.0\%)$ in the rate of mummification to archegonia. The longevity of Aphidiidae and hyperparasites was investigated by feeding honey. The results showed that hyperparasites had lived 15.8 to 21. 5 days, while Aphiidiidae lived only 2 to 3 days.

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Magnetoresistive of (NiFe/CoFe)/Cu/CoFe Spin-Valvec ((NiFe/CoFe)/Cu/CoFe Spin-Valve 박막의 자기저항 특성)

  • 오미영;이선영;이정미;김미양;이장로
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.265-273
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    • 1997
  • The MR ratios and the exchange biasing field and interlayer coupling field were investigated in $Ni_{91}Fe_{19}/Co_{90}Fe_{10}/Cu/Co_{90}Fe_{10}/NiO$ spin-valve sandwiches grown on antiferromagnetic NiO films as a function of the NiO thickness, the thickness of Cu and pinning layer $Co_{90}Fe_{10}$. The spin-valve sandwiches were deposited on the Corning glass 7059 by means of the 3-gun dc and 1-gun rf magnetron sputtering at a 5 mtorrpartial Ar pressure and room temperature. The deposition field was 50 Oe. The MR curve was measured by the four-terminal method with applied magnetic soft bilayer [NiFe/CoFe] (90$\AA$) decreased dramatically to less than 10 Oe when the NiFe/CoFe bilayer used an NiFe bilayer thicker that 20$\AA$. So NiFe layer improved the softmagnetic properties in the NiFe/CoFe bilayer. The GMR ratio and the magnetic field sensitivity of the spin-valve film $Ni_{91}Fe_{19}(40{\AA})/Co_{90}Fe_{10}(50{\AA}) /Cu(30{\AA})/Co_{90}Fe_{10}(35{\AA})/NiO(800{\AA})$ was 6.3% and about 0.5 (%/Oe), respectively. The MR ratio had 5.3% below an annealing temperature of 20$0^{\circ}C$ which slowly decreased to 3% above 30$0^{\circ}C$. The large blocking temperature of the spin-valve film was taken (as being) due to the good stability of the NiO films. Thus, the spin-valve films with a free NiFe/CoFe layer clearly had a high large GMR output and showed a effective magnetic field sensitivity for a suitable spin-valve head material.

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Factors Required to Sustain Pastoral Farming Systems and Forage Supply In Winter-Cold Zones in Canada (캐나다의 동계한냉지역에 있어서 초지개발과 조사료 공급의 활성화에 필요한 요인)

  • Kunelius, H.T.;Fraser, Joanna
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.3-12
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    • 1992
  • Forage grasses and legumes ar$\varepsilon$ the mam component of livestock diets in Canada. There are over 30 million ha of grassland in Canada and there is a large, undeveloped land base in fringe areas suitable for forage production. The short growing s season limits the grassland farming to the southern p parts of Canada. The win!er season is long and in most parts of Canada cold temperatures, fr$\varepsilon$ezmg, and thawing, and diseases exert sever$\varepsilon$ stress on overwintering forage plants. The development of persistent cultivars is essential for sustained production particularly in the fringe areas with short growmg s$\varepsilon$ason. The seasonality of dry matter production is a result of high growth rates in early summ$\varepsilon$r and low dry matter accumulation in late summer and fall. Innovative management practIces a and cultivars with improved regrowth capacity are n necessary to overcome such skewed production pattern and to extend effiectlVe grazmg season l Improved pasture production is an important part of reducing costs in livestock operations and remaining competitive. It is suggested that applying available technology would increase pasture productivity and reduce d$\varepsilon$pendence on stored feeds thus improving profitability of small producers in particeular. Reducing nutrient losses during harv$\varepsilon$stmg, s storage, and feeding is essential for improved production efficiency during confinement. The devclopment of low cost and labor saving methods of ensiling is critical for improved efficiency and profitability of forage based enterprises Livestock industries must respond to consumer preferences for low fat and cholesterol foods. Research and development of entire production systems is emphasized for dev$\varepsilon$loping viabl$\varepsilon$ enterprises. It is increasingly difficult to secure resources for r$\varepsilon$search, education, and extension, and alliane$\varepsilon$s and cooperation must expand among organizations with interests in forage based livestock systems.

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Growth and Opto-electric Characterization of ZnSe Thin Film by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD(Chemical Bath Deposition)방법에 의한 ZnSe 박막성장과 광전기적 특성)

  • Hong, K.J.;You, S.H.
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.62-70
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    • 2001
  • The ZnSe sample grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method were annealed in Ar gas at $45^{\circ}C$. Using extrapolation method of X-ray diffraction pattern, it was found to have zinc blend structure whose lattice parameter $a_o$ was $5.6687\;{\AA}$. From Hall effect, the mobility was likely to be decreased by impurity scattering at temperature range from 10 K to 150 K and by lattice scattering at temperature range from 150 K to 293 K. The band gap given by the transmission edge changed from $2.700{\underline{5}}\;eV$ at 293 K to $2.873{\underline{9}}\;eV$ at 10 K. Comparing photocurrent peak position with transmission edge, we could find that photocurrent peaks due to excition electrons from valence band, ${\Gamma}_8$ and ${\Gamma}_7$ and to conduction band ${\Gamma}_6$ were observed at photocurrent spectrum. From the photocurrent spectra by illumination of polarized light on the ZnSe thin film, we have found that values of spin orbit coupling splitting ${\Delta}so$ is $0.098{\underline{1}}\;eV$. From the PL spectra at 10K, the peaks corresponding to free bound excitons and D-A pair and a broad emission band due to SA is identified. The binding energy of the free excitons are determined to be $0.061{\underline{2}}\;eV$ and the dissipation energy of the donor -bound exciton and acceptor-bound exciton to be $0.017{\underline{2}}\;eV$, $0.031{\underline{0}}\;eV$, respectively.

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$CO_2$ Transport for CCS Application in Republic of Korea (이산화탄소 포집 및 저장 실용화를 위한 대한민국에서의 이산화탄소 수송)

  • Huh, Cheol;Kang, Seong-Gil;Cho, Mang-Ik
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.18-29
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    • 2010
  • Offshore subsurface storage of $CO_2$ is regarded as one of the most promising options to response severe climate change. Marine geological storage of $CO_2$ is to capture $CO_2$ from major point sources, to transport to the storage sites and to store $CO_2$ into the offshore subsurface geological structure such as the depleted gas reservoir and deep sea saline aquifer. Since 2005, we have developed relevant technologies for marine geological storage of $CO_2$. Those technologies include possible storage site surveys and basic designs for $CO_2$ transport and storage processes. To design a reliable $CO_2$ marine geological storage system, we devised a hypothetical scenario and used a numerical simulation tool to study its detailed processes. The process of transport $CO_2$ from the onshore capture sites to the offshore storage sites can be simulated with a thermodynamic equation of state. Before going to main calculation of process design, we compared and analyzed the relevant equation of states. To evaluate the predictive accuracies of the examined equation of states, we compare the results of numerical calculations with experimental reference data. Up to now, process design for this $CO_2$ marine geological storage has been carried out mainly on pure $CO_2$. Unfortunately the captured $CO_2$ mixture contains many impurities such as $N_2$, $O_2$, Ar, $H_{2}O$, $SO_{\chi}$, $H_{2}S$. A small amount of impurities can change the thermodynamic properties and then significantly affect the compression, purification and transport processes. This paper analyzes the major design parameters that are useful for constructing onshore and offshore $CO_2$ transport systems. On the basis of a parametric study of the hypothetical scenario, we suggest relevant variation ranges for the design parameters, particularly the flow rate, diameter, temperature, and pressure.