• Title/Summary/Keyword: AR

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Fluorine-based inductively coupled plasma etching of ZnO film (ZnO 박막의 fluorine-계 유도결합 플라즈마 식각)

  • Park, Jong-Cheon;Lee, Byeong-Woo;Kim, Byeong-Ik;Cho, Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.230-234
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    • 2011
  • High density plasma etching of ZnO film was performed in $CF_4$/Ar and $SF_6$/Ar inductively coupled plasmas. Maximum etch rates of ~1950 ${\AA}$/min and ~1400 ${\AA}$/min were obtained for $10CF_4$/5Ar and $10SF_6$/5Ar ICP discharges, respectively. The etched ZnO surfaces showed better RMS roughness values than the unetched control sample under most of the conditions examined. In the $10CF_4$/5Ar ICP discharges, very high etch selectivities were obtained for ZnO over Ni (max. 11) while Al showed etch selectivities in the range of 1.6~4.7 to ZnO.

Anti-oxidation and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Asiasari Radix in RAW 264.7 Cells (세신(細辛) 주정(酒錠) 추출물(抽出物)이 LPS로 유발된 RAW 264.7 Cell의 염증 및 항산화 반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Yu-Chen;Oh, Min-Seok
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.99-110
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    • 2014
  • Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the Anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract from asiasari radix (AR) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced in RAW 264.7 Cells Methods Anti-oxidative effects of AR were measured by scavenging activities of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RAW 264.7 cells. Anti-inflammatory effects of AR were measured by mediators including nitric oxide(NO), interleukin-$1{\beta}$ (IL-$1{\beta}$), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necosis factors-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$) and iNOS, IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$ mRNA expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Results Total phenolic content was expressed $28.77{\pm}1.67$. DPPH radical Scavenging was increased depend on AR ethanol extract. ABAT radical Scavenging was increased depend on AR ethanol extract. Production of ROS was significantly decreased by AR ethanol extract on concentration of 100 (${\mu}g/ml$). Production of NO was significantly decreased by AR ethanol extract on concentration of $100({\mu}g/ml)$. Production of IL-$1{\beta}$, interleukin-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$ were increased depend on AR ethanol extract. And Production of interleukin-6, TNF-${\alpha}$ were significantly decreased AR ethanol extract. iNOS, IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$ mRNA expression of RAW 264.7 cells was increased depend on AR ethanol extract. Conclusions According to this study, AR ethanol extract has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatoy effects.

Design of DEA/(AR-I, ARGM) Models and Sensitivity Analysis for Performance Evaluation on Governmental Funding Projects for IT Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (IT중소기업 정부자금 지원정책 성과 평가를 위한 DEA/(AR-I, ARGM) 모형 설계 및 민감도 분석)

  • Park, Sungmin;Kim, Heon;Baek, Donghyun
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.190-204
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    • 2008
  • Recently, it has been strongly required to establish a systematic and sustainable performance investigation and evaluation framework on governmental funding projects for IT small and medium-sized enterprises. In this paper, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models are adopted for performance evaluation on governmental funding projects for IT small and medium-sized enterprises. A new data structure is proposed for the DEA performance evaluation. Generally, in using DEA models, DEA multipliers restriction is critical to achieve the reliability of DEA optimal solutions. Based on the outputs and inputs considered in this study, Acceptance Region (AR) constraints are generated and incorporated into the DEA models so as to improve the reliability of DEA efficiency scores. Associated with AR Type I (AR-I), AR Global Model (ARGM) constraints, DEA/ (AR-I, ARGM) models are designed and then sensitivity analysis follows investigating the robustness of DEA efficiency scores relating to AR constraints adjustment. Finally, a performance evaluation is illustrated regarding governmental direct funding projects from Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC) in Korea where each project unit (i.e. Decision Making Unit (DMU)) is determined whether it is efficient or not. By using DEA/(AR-I, ARGM) models designed in this paper, robustly efficient DMUs are gradually identified according to the successive AR constraints adjustment. Among 25 DMUs, results show that 6 DMUs such as B, E, G, Q, S, Y are determined as robustly efficient against AR constraints intermediate adjustment.

Effects of Agastache rugosa on Obesity Via Inhibition of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Gamma and Reduction of Food Intake (지방합성 인자 조절 및 식이 섭취 감소를 통한 곽향의 항비만 효능)

  • Kim, Young Min;Kim, Mi Hye;Yang, Woong Mo
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.104-110
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: The herb of Agastache rugosa (AR) is a traditional herbal medicine used for colds, vomiting and furuncles. However, there are few reports to investigate the inhibitory effects of AR on obesity. In this study, the effects of AR on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and its mechanism of actions were investigated in experimental animals. Methods: The mice were fed HFD for 4 weeks to induce obesity. After randomly divided into normal fat diet, HFD and AR groups, 200 mg/kg of AR was administrated for 4 weeks with continuous HFD feeding while vehicle was orally treated to HFD group. Food intake and body weight were recorded weekly. Results: Increased body weight by HFD was improved by AR treatment. AR administration inhibited an increase of visceral fat weight as well as adipocyte hypertrophy. Hepatic steatosis was ameliorated in AR-treated mice. In addition, treatment of AR attenuated the expression of adipogenic transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma in the epididymal adipose tissue. Also the increased serum leptin level by HFD was maintained in AR group, leading to inhibition of food intake. Conclusions: AR treatment showed inhibitory effects on HFD-induced obesity by inhibition of PPAR-gamma and reduction of food intake. AR could be an alternative treatment for obesity.

$^{40}Ar^{/39}Ar$ Age of the Volcanic Pebbles Within the Silla Conglomerate and the Deposition Timing of the Hayang Group (백악기 신라역암 내 화산암력의 $^{40}Ar^{/39}Ar$ 연대 및 하양층군의 퇴적시기에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim Chan-Soo;Park Kye-Hun;Paik In-Sung
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.38-44
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    • 2005
  • Hornblende $^{40}Ar/^{39}Ar$ age of $113.4{\pm}2.4(2{\sigma})$ Ma was determined from the volcanic pebble of the Silla Conglomerate which belongs to the Hayang Group of the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup. This age corresponds to the top of Aptian. Based on the reported age information, onset and duration of deposition of the constituting formations of the Hayang Group are constrained as follows; deposition of the Jindong Formation started from ca. 96~97 Ma and lasted for about 15 Ma. Therefore, Jindong Formation was deposited since Cenomanian to Santonian and it is likely to be extended to the early Campanian. We propose 81~80 Ma, which is in early Campanian, as the boundary between Hayang and Yucheon Groups. We suggest that the Silla Conglomerate was deposited during the early Albian and the Haman Formation was deposited during the rest of the Albian and also during the Cenomanian. The Chilgok Formation seems to be deposited during the late Aptian.

옥천변성대 서남부지역 변성퇴적암

  • 김성원;오창환;이덕수;이정후
    • Proceedings of the Petrological Society of Korea Conference
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    • 2002.05a
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    • pp.1-38
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    • 2002
  • 옥천변성대 서남부지역은 변성이질암의 광물조합을 기준으로 남동부부터 북서방향으로 흑운모대, 석류석대, 십자석대의 3개의 변성광물분대로 나누어진다. Oh et al. (1995a)의 연구에서 보고된 남정석들은 산출되지 않는 것이 확인되었고 변성도는 흑운모대에서 석류석대를 거쳐 십자석대로 갈수록 증가한다. 쥬라기 화강암 접촉부의 국부적인 변성암류에서는 화강암에 의한 접촉변성작용에 의해 형성된 홍주석과 규선석이 산출된다. 흑운모대의 변성 압력-온도는 4.2 - 5.1 kb, 400 - 500 $^{\circ}C$이다. 십자석대의 정누대구조를 가지는 석류석과 석류석안의 사장석, 흑운모, 금흥석, 일메나이트포유광물의 공생관계로 추정한 압력-온도 (석류석 주변부: 7.0 - 8.0 kb, 550 - 620 $^{\circ}C$; 석류석 중심부: 4.0 - 5.0 kb, 420 - 520 $^{\circ}C$) 및 십자석대 내에서 후퇴변성작용 및 접촉변성작용 받은 석류석 주변부에 기록된 압력-온도 조건(약 2.0 - 3.0kb, 450 - 55$0^{\circ}C$)과 함께 옥천변성대 서남부지역의 변성암류가 시계방향의 압력-온도 경로를 겪었음을 지시한다. 연구지역 내에서 정밀 기재된 단면들에 대한 퇴적환경을 종합하면 대체 적으로 남동부에서는 천해성 환경이 인지되나 북서쪽으로 갈수록 대륙사면을 거쳐 분지 중심의 환경으로 전이되는 경향을 보인다. 이러한 퇴적상의 공간적 분포는 분지의 남동쪽보다 북서쪽의 침강이 우세하였던 것으로 해석될 수 있으며, 이는 곧 분지가 형성될 때 반지구대 (half graben) 형태로 분지가 열개 (rifting) 되었음을 의미한다. 각 변성분대에서 채취한 변성이질암으로부터 측정된 K-Ar 과 40Ar/39Ar 흑운모와 백운모 연대들은 149 - 167 Ma에 집중된다. 그리고 각 변성분대에서 동일시료에 대한 K-Ar 과 40Ar/39Ar 연대들은 동일시기를 지시함으로 연대적인 신뢰성을 확인 할 수 있었다. 옥천변성대 서남부지역의 변성암류를 관입하는 2개의 괴상의 화강암과 1개의 엽리화강암에서 얻어진 백운모와 흑운모들의 K-Ar 연대는 모두 156 Ma이며 옥천변성대 서남부지역의 변성이 질암의 연대와 유사하다. 이는 연구지역의 변성암류와 화강암류는 40Ar/39Ar 과 K-Ar 계의 흑운모와 백운모의 폐쇄온도 (약 300 - 350 $^{\circ}C$) 까지 동시에 냉각된 사실을 지시한다. 각섬석 편암내의 각섬석들은 복잡한 40Ar/39Ar 연대를 보여주며 일부가 평형연대를 보여주지만 특별한 의미 부여가 힘들다.

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Etch Characteristics of Magnetic Tunnel Junction Stack Patterned with Nanometer Size for Magnetic Random Access Memory (자성 메모리의 적용을 위한 나노미터 크기로 패턴된 Magnetic Tunnel Junction의 식각 특성)

  • Park, Ik Hyun;Lee, Jang Woo;Chung, Chee Won
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.853-856
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    • 2005
  • Inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) stack, which is one of the key elements in magnetic random access memory, was studied. The MTJ stacks were patterned in nanometer size by electron(e)-beam lithography, and TiN thin films were employed as a hard mask. The etch process of TiN hard mask was examined using Ar, $Cl_2/Ar$, and $SF_6/Ar$. The TiN hard mask patterned by e-beam lithography was first etched and then the etching of MTJ stack was performed. The MTJ stacks were etched using Ar, $Cl_2/Ar$, and $BCl_3/Ar$ gases by varying gas concentration and pressure.

Parametric study of inductively coupled plasma etching of GaN epitaxy layer (GaN epitaxy 층의 식각특성에 미치는 공정변수의 영향)

  • Choi, Byoung Su;Park, Hae Li;Cho, Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.145-149
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    • 2016
  • The effect of process parameters such as plasma composition, ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) source power and rf chuck power on the etch characteristics of GaN epitaxy layer was studied. $Cl_2/Ar$ ICP discharges showed higher etch rates than $SF_6/Ar$ discharges because of the higher volatility of $GaCl_x$ etch products than $GaF_x$ compounds. As the Ar ratio increases in the $Cl_2/Ar$ ICP discharges, the etch anisotropy was enhanced due to the improved physical component of the etching. For both plasma chemistries, the GaN etch rate increased continuously as both the ICP source power and rf chuck power increased, and a maximum etch rate of 251.9 nm/min was obtained at $13Cl_2/2Ar$, 750W ICP power, 400W rf chuck power and 10 mTorr condition.

A Case Study of Augmented Reality Marketing (증강현실 마케팅 사례 연구)

  • Moon, Han-Byul;Kim, Jin-Hee;Park, Jin-Wan
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.160-171
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    • 2017
  • This study is intended to study the usage of augmented reality(AR) in the marketing field by classifying them into display and content types and analyzing the typical cases and characteristics. The market for AR has been on the increase and has been a big influence in the marketing field, resulting in the generalization of the term "AR marketing." By analyzing the marketing cases which use AR technology and organizing the frequency of use and characteristics, it is expected to contribute as a basic material for future studies on AR marketing. In this study, AR marketing cases are classified into different categories including display and contents. First, AR display category includes personal computers, mobile, public display, and projection display. AR contents category includes informative content, game contents, virtual experience, and visual effect. While investigating, it was found that the most used type of AR display was mobile, which has the advantage of not being limited by time and place and is also capable of one-on-one marketing with customers. The most used type of AR content was visual effect type, which evokes curiosity and is easily shared among people.

Analysis of Determinants Influencing User Satisfaction for Augmented Reality(AR) Camera Application: Focusing on Naver's Service (증강현실 기반 카메라 애플리케이션 서비스 만족도 영향 요인들에 대한 고찰: 네이버 <스노우> 서비스를 중심으로)

  • Lee, Sungjoon
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.417-428
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    • 2020
  • Augmented reality(AR) service as one of the representative technologies in the era of the 4th industrial revolution has gotten people's increasing attention. At this time, this study aimed to examine the determinants affecting service satisfaction of the AR-based camera application service by focusing on Naver's service. Several factors that might have influences on satisfaction of the AR-based camera application service were conceived based on the previous literature. And it was tested whether they had influences on satisfaction of the AR-based camera application service or not empirically. The responses of a sample of 312 people who had experienced using Naver's service were collected by means of an online survey and they were analyzed employing a hierarchical regression analysis. The results of this research indicated that gender as one of demographic variable, perceived interactivity, aesthetic value, trend following motivation as an extrinsic motivation and playfulness as an intrinsic motivation have significant influences on the service satisfaction of the AR-based camera application service. The results in this study have meanings since they can be used as references for AR service providers to develop more satisfactory AR services.