• Title/Summary/Keyword: CVD

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Nearly single crystal, few-layered hexagonal boron nitride films with centimeter size using reusable Ni(111)

  • Oh, Hongseok;Jo, Janghyun;Yoon, Hosang;Tchoe, Youngbin;Kim, Sung-Soo;Kim, Miyoung;Sohn, Byeong-Hyeok;Yi, Gyu-Chul
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • 2016.02a
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    • pp.286-286
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    • 2016
  • Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is a dielectric insulator with a two-dimensional (2D) layered structure. It is an appealing substrate dielectric for many applications due to its favorable properties, such as a wide band gap energy, chemical inertness and high thermal conductivity[1]. Furthermore, its remarkable mechanical strength renders few-layered hBN a flexible and transparent substrate, ideal for next-generation electronics and optoelectronics in applications. However, the difficulty of preparing high quality large-area hBN films has hindered their widespread use. Generally, large-area hBN layers prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) usually exhibit polycrystalline structures with a typical average grain size of several microns. It has been reported that grain boundaries or dislocations in hBN can degrade its electronic or mechanical properties. Accordingly, large-area single crystalline hBN layers are desired to fully realize the potential advantages of hBN in device applications. In this presentation, we report the growth and transfer of centimeter-sized, nearly single crystal hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) few-layer films using Ni(111) single crystal substrates. The hBN films were grown on Ni(111) substrates using atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD). The grown films were transferred to arbitrary substrates via an electrochemical delamination technique, and remaining Ni(111) substrates were repeatedly re-used. The crystallinity of the grown films from the atomic to centimeter scale was confirmed based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Careful study of the growth parameters was also carried out. Moreover, various characterizations confirmed that the grown films exhibited typical characteristics of hexagonal boron nitride layers over the entire area. Our results suggest that hBN can be widely used in various applications where large-area, high quality, and single crystalline 2D insulating layers are required.

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Electrochemical treatment of wastewater using boron doped diamond electrode by metal inter layer

  • KIM, Seohan;YOU, Miyoung;SONG, Pungkeun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • 2016.02a
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    • pp.251-251
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    • 2016
  • For several decades, industrial processes consume a huge amount of raw water for various objects that consequently results in the generation of large amounts of wastewater. Wastewaters are consisting of complex mixture of different inorganic and organic compounds and some of them can be toxic, hazardous and hard to degrade. These effluents are mainly treated by conventional technologies such are aerobic and anaerobic treatment and chemical coagulation. But, these processes are not suitable for eliminating all hazardous chemical compounds form wastewater and generate a large amount of toxic sludge. Therefore, other processes have been studied and applied together with these techniques to enhance purification results. These include photocatalysis, absorption, advanced oxidation processes, and ozonation, but also have their own drawbacks. In recent years, electrochemical techniques have received attention as wastewater treatment process that could be show higher purification results. Among them, boron doped diamond (BDD) attract attention as electrochemical electrode due to good chemical and electrochemical stability, long lifetime and wide potential window that necessary properties for anode electrode. So, there are many researches about high quality BDD on Nb, Ta, W and Si substrates, but, their application in effluents treatment is not suitable due to high cost of metal and low conductivity of Si. To solve these problems, Ti has been candidate as substrate in consideration of cost and property. But there are adhesion issues that must be overcome to apply Ti as BDD substrate. Al, Cu, Ti and Nb thin films were deposited on Ti substrate to improve adhesion between substrate and BDD thin film. In this paper, BDD films were deposited by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) method. Prior to deposition, cleaning processes were conducted in acetone, ethanol, and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) using sonification machine for 7 min, respectively. And metal layer with the thickness of 200 nm were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering (DCMS). To analyze microstructure X-ray diffraction (XRD, Bruker gads) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, Hitachi) were used. It is confirmed that metal layer was effective to adhesion property and improved electrode property. Electrochemical measurements were carried out in a three electrode electrochemical cell containing a 0.5 % H2SO4 in deionized water. As a result, it is confirmed that metal inter layer heavily effect on BDD property by improving adhesion property due to suppressing formation of titanium carbide.

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The Study of $SiO_2$, $Si_3N_4$ passivation layers grown by PECVD for the indiumantimonide photodetector

  • Lee, Jae-Yeol;Kim, Jeong-Seop;Yang, Chang-Jae;Park, Se-Hun;Yun, Ui-Jun
    • Proceedings of the Materials Research Society of Korea Conference
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    • 2009.11a
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    • pp.24.2-24.2
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    • 2009
  • Indium Antimonide(InSb)는 $3{\sim}5\;{\mu}m$대 적외선 감지영역에서 기존 HgCdTe(MCT)를 대체할 물질로 각광받고 있다. 1970년대부터군사적 용도로 미국, 이스라엘 등 일부 선진국에서 연구되기 시작했으며,이온주입, MOCVD, MBE 등 다양한 공정을 통해 제작되어 왔다. InSb 적외선 감지소자는 $3{\sim}5{\mu}m$대에서 HgCdTe와 성능은 대등한데 반해, 기판의 대면적화와 저렴한 가격, 우주공간 및 야전에서 소자 동작의안정성 등으로 InSb적외선 감지기는 냉각형 고성능 적외선 감지영역에서 HgCdTe를 대체해 가고 있다. 하지만 InSb는 77 K에서 0.225eV의 작은 밴드갭을 갖고 있기 때문에 누설전류로 인한 성능저하가 고질적인문제로 대두되었고, 이를 해결하기 위한 고품질 절연막 연구가 InSb적외선 수광 소자 연구의 주요이슈 중 하나가 되어왔다. 그 동안 PECVD, photo-CVD, anodic oxidation 등의 공정을 이용하여 $SiO_2$, $Si_3N_4$, 양극산화막(anodic oxide) 등 다양한 절연막에 대한 연구가 진행되었고[1,2], 절연막과 반도체 사이 계면에서의 열확산을 억제하여 계면트랩밀도를 최소화하기 위한 공정개발이 이루어졌다[3]. 하지만 InSb 적외선 감지기술은 국방 및 우주개발의 핵심기술중 하나로 그 기술의 이전이 엄격히 통제되고 있으며, 현재도 미국과 이스라엘, 일본, 영국 등 일부 선진국 만이 기술을 확보하고 있고, 국내의 경우 연구가 매우 취약한 실정이다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 InSb 적외선 감지기의 암전류를 제어하기 위한 낮은 계면트랩밀도를 갖는 절연막 증착 공정을 찾고자 하였다. 본 연구에서는 n형 (100) InSb 기판 ($n=0.2{\sim}0.85{\times}10^{15}cm^{-3}$ @ 77K)에 PECVD를 이용하여 $SiO_2$, $Si_3N_4$ 등을 증착하고 절연막으로서 이들의 특성을 비교 분석하였다. $SiO_2$는 160, 200, $240^{\circ}C$에서 $Si_3N_4$는 200, $300^{\circ}C$에서 증착하였다. Atomic Force Microscopy(AFM) 사진으로 확인한 결과, 모든 샘플에서표면거칠기가 ~2 nm의 평탄한 박막을 얻을 수 있었다. Capacitance-Voltage 측정(77K)을 통해 절연막 특성을 평가하였다. $SiO_2$$Si_3N_4$ 모두에서 온도가 증가할수록 벌크트랩밀도가 감소하는 경향을 볼 수 있었는데, 이는 고온에서 증착할 수록 박막 내의 결함이 감소했음을 의미한다. 반면계면트랩밀도는 온도가 증가함에 따라, 1011 eV-1cm-2 대에서 $10^{12}eV^{-1}cm^{-2}$ 대로 증가하였는데, 이는 고온에서 증착할 수 록 InSb 표면에서의 결함은 증가하였음을의미한다. 암전류에 큰 영향을 주는 것은 계면트랩밀도 이므로, $SiO_2$$Si_3N_4$ 모두 $200^{\circ}C$이하의 저온에서 증착시켜야 함을 확인할 수 있었다.

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The Film Property and Deposition Process of TSV Inside for 3D Interconnection (3D Interconnection을 위한 실리콘 관통 전극 내부의 절연막 증착 공정과 그 막의 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Seo, Sang-Woon;Kim, Gu-Sung
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 2008
  • This investigation was performed in order to study the properties of deposition and layers by Silicon Dioxide, SiO2, as dielectric onto Via and Trench which have high Aspect Ratio (AR). Thus, in order to confirm these properties, three types of CVD, which were PECVD, PETEOS, and ALD, were selected. On the experiment each of the property sections was estimated that step overage of PECVD: <30%, PETEOS: 45%, ALD: 75% and the RSM of PECVD: 27.8 nm, PETEOS: 2.1 nm, ALD: <2.0 nm. As a result of this experiment for the property of electric film, ALD was valuated to be the most favorable outcome. However, ALD was valuated to have the least quality for the deposition rate. ALD deposition rate, $10\;\AA/min$ by $1\;\AA$/1cycle, was prominently lower than PETEOS, which had the deposition rate of $5000\;\AA$/min. Since electric film requires at least $1000\;\AA$ thicknesses, ALD was not suitable for the deposition rate. which is the most important component in a practical use. Therefore, in this particular study, PETEOS was evaluated to be the most suitable recipe.

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Dependence of the Diamond Coating Adhesion on the Microstructure of WC-Co Substrates (WC-Co계 미세조직에 따른 CVD 다이아몬드 코팅막의 접착력 변화)

  • Lee, Dong-Beum;Chae, Ki-Woong
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.41 no.10 s.269
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    • pp.728-734
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    • 2004
  • The effect of microstructure of WC-Co substrates which have different WC grain sizes from submicron to 5 $\mu$m on the diamond-substrate adhesion strength was investigated. The substrates were pre-treated by two methods : chemical etching with Murakami's solution and subsequently with $H_2SO_4$, and thermal heat-treatment. The adhesion strength was estimated by degree of peeling after Rockwell indentation. Diamond films of 20 $\mu$m thickness deposited on the heat-treated substrates showed an excellent adhesion strength at the load of 100 kg, which ascribed to the large and elongated WC grains. However, the cutting edge of insert was deformed after heat treatment and the surface morphology of heat treated substrate strongly affected on the surface roughness of the deposited diamond films. On the contrary, the diamond film of 10 $\mu$m in thickness on the chemically etched substrates of average WC grain size over 2 $\mu$m showed good adhesion strength enough not to peel-off under a load of 60 kg. Especially, the substrate of average WC grain size over 5 $\mu$m exhibited much improved reliability of adhesion comparing with the substrate of average grain size under 2 $\mu$m. No substrate deformation was observed in this case after the chemical etching, which is more advantageous and more practical in terms of precious machining than the heat treatment case.

Pulsed Laser Deposition을 이용하여 GZO/Glass 기판상에 성장시킨 염료감응형 태양전지용 $TiO_2$ Blocking Layer의 특성 연구

  • Yeo, In-Hyeong;Kim, Ji-Hong;No, Ji-Hyeong;Kim, Jae-Won;Do, Gang-Min;Sin, Ju-Hong;Jo, Seul-Gi;Park, Jae-Ho;Mun, Byeong-Mu
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • 2011.08a
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    • pp.259-259
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    • 2011
  • 염료감응형 태양전지(Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells:DSSC)는 환경 친화적이며, 저가의 공정에 대한 가능성으로 기존의 고가의 결정질 실리콘 태양전지의 경제적인 대안으로 각광을 받고 있다. 최근 염료감응형 태양전지는 투명 전도성 산화막(Transparent Conducting Oxide : TCO)으로 사용되는 Fluorine Tin Oxide (FTO)가 증착된 유리기판 위에 주로 제작된다. FTO는 낮은 비저항과 가시광선 영역에서 높은 투과도를 가지는 우수한 전기-광학적 특성을 갖지만, 비교적 공정이 까다로운 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)법으로 제조하며, 전체 공정비용의 60%를 차지하는 높은 생산단가로 인해 현재 FTO를 대체할 재료개발 연구가 활발히 진행되고 있다. 그 중 ZnO (Zinc Oxide)는 우수한 전기-광학적 특성과 비교적 저렴한 가격으로 새로운 TCO로써 주목받고 있다. ZnO는 넓은 energy band gap (3.4 [eV])의 육방정계 울자이트(hexagonal wurtzite) 결정 구조를 가지는II-VI족 n형 반도체 물질이며, III족 금속원소인 Al, Ga 및 In 등의 불순물을 첨가하면 TCO로서 우수한 전기-광학적 특성과 안정성을 나타낸다. 이들 물질중 $Zn^{2+}$ (0.060 nm)의 이온반경과 유사한 $Ga^{2+}$0.062 nm) 이온이 ZnO의 격자반경을 최소화 시킬 수 있다는 장점으로 최근 주목 받고 있다. 하지만 Ga-doped ZnO (GZO)의 경우 DSC에 사용되는 루테늄 계열의 산성 염료 하에 장시간 두면 표면이 파괴되는 문제가 발생하며, $TiO_2$ paste를 Printing 후 열처리하는 과정에서도 박막의 파괴가 발생할 수 있다. 이를 방지하기 위해 $TiO_2$ Blocking Layer를 GZO 투명전극 위에 증착하였다. 또한, $TiO_2$ Blocking Layer를 적용한 GZO 박막을 전면전극으로 이용하여 DSC를 제작하여 효율을 확인하였다. 2wt%의 $Ga_2O_3$가 도핑된 ZnO 박막은 20mTorr 400$^{\circ}C$에서 Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD)에 의해 성장되었고, $TiO_2$박막은 Ti 금속을 타겟으로 이용하여 30mTorr 400$^{\circ}C$에서 증착되었다. Scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM)을 이용한 박막 분석 결과 $TiO_2$가 증착된 GZO 박막의 경우 표면 파괴가 일어나지 않았다. Solar Simulator을 이용하여 I-V특성 측정결과 상용 FTO를 사용한 DSC 수준의 효율을 나타내었다. 이에 따라 Pulsed Laser Deposition을 이용해 제작된 GZO 기판은 $TiO_2$ Blocking Layer를 이용하여 표면 파괴를 방지할 수 있었으며, 이는 향후 염료감응형 태양전지의 투명전극에 적용 가능 할 것으로 판단된다.

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Synthesis of High-Quality Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Fibers by Vertical CVD (수직 가열로를 이용한 고순도 단일벽 탄소나노튜브 섬유의 합성)

  • Kim, Tae-Min;Song, Woo-Seok;Kim, Yoo-Seok;Kim, Soo-Youn;Choi, Won-Chel;Park, Chong-Yun
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.377-384
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    • 2010
  • Many routes have been developed for the synthesis of signle-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). We spun fibers of SWCNTs directly from vertical furnace using a liquid source of carbon and an iron-contained molecule. The solution was prepared by ethanol as a carbon source, in which ferrocene as a catalyst, thiophene were dissolved. It was then injected from the top of the furnace into hot zone with hydrogen as a carrier gas. We successfully synthesized high-quality SWCNTs by adjusting the various experimental conditions, such as concentration of ferrocene, solution injection rate, concentration of thiophene, and hydrogen flow rate. Measurement of Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were carried out to find the optimized conditions. The synthesized SWCNTs (1.16~1.64 nm) appeared a bundle structure and well-aligned parallel to the direction of furnace. These results also provide an simple way for high-quality SWCNTs mass production and fabricating direct spining SWCNTs fiber. It will allow one-step production of SWCNTs fiber with potentially excellent properties and wide-range applications.

Optical Diagnostics of Nanopowder Processed in Liquid Plasmas

  • Bratescu, M.A.;Saito, N.;Takai, O.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • 2011.02a
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    • pp.17-18
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    • 2011
  • Plasma in liquid phase has attracted great attention in the last few years by the wide domain of applications in material processing, decomposition of organic and inorganic chemical compounds and sterilization of water. The plasma in liquid is characterized by three main regions which interact each - other during the plasma operation: the liquid phase, which supply the plasma gas phase with various chemical compounds and ions, the plasma in the gas phase at atmospheric pressure and the interface between these two regions. The most complex region, but extremely interesting from the fundamental, chemical and physical processes which occur here, is the boundary between the liquid phase and the plasma gas phase. In our laboratory, plasma in liquid which behaves as a glow discharge type, is generated by using a bipolar pulsed power supply, with variable pulse width, in the range of 0.5~10 ${\mu}s$ and 10 to 30 kHz repetition rate. Plasma in water and other different solutions was characterized by electrical and optical measurements. Strong emissions of OH and H radicals dominate the optical spectra. Generally water with 500 ${\mu}S/cm$ conductivity has a breakdown voltage around 2 kV, depending on the pulse width and the repetition rate of the power supply. The characteristics of the plasma initiated in ultrapure water between pairs of different materials used for electrodes (W and Ta) were investigated by the time-resolved optical emission and the broad-band absorption spectroscopy. The deexcitation processes of the reactive species formed in the water plasma depend on the electrode material, but have been independent on the polarity of the applied voltage pulses. Recently, Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy method was employed to investigate the chemistry in the liquid phase and at the interface between the gas and the liquid phases of the solution plasma system. The use of the solution plasma allows rapid fabrication of the metal nanoparticles without being necessary the addition of different reducing agents, because plasma in the liquid phase provides a reaction field with a highly excited energy radicals. We successfully synthesized gold nanoparticles using a glow discharge in aqueous solution. Nanoparticles with an average size of less than 10 nm were obtained using chlorauric acid solutions as the metal source. Carbon/Pt hybrid nanostructures have been obtained by treating carbon balls, synthesized in a CVD chamber, with hexachloro- platinum acid in a solution plasma system. The solution plasma was successfully used to remove the template remained after the mesoporous silica synthesis. Surface functionalization of the carbon structures and the silica surface with different chemical groups and nanoparticles, was also performed by processing these materials in the liquid plasma.

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Copper Interconnection and Flip Chip Packaging Laboratory Activity for Microelectronics Manufacturing Engineers

  • Moon, Dae-Ho;Ha, Tae-Min;Kim, Boom-Soo;Han, Seung-Soo;Hong, Sang-Jeen
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • 2012.02a
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    • pp.431-432
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    • 2012
  • In the era of 20 nm scaled semiconductor volume manufacturing, Microelectronics Manufacturing Engineering Education is presented in this paper. The purpose of microelectronic engineering education is to educate engineers to work in the semiconductor industry; it is therefore should be considered even before than technology development. Three Microelectronics Manufacturing Engineering related courses are introduced, and how undergraduate students acquired hands-on experience on Microelectronics fabrication and manufacturing. Conventionally employed wire bonding was recognized as not only an additional parasitic source in high-frequency mobile applications due to the increased inductance caused from the wiring loop, but also a huddle for minimizing IC packaging footprint. To alleviate the concerns, chip bumping technologies such as flip chip bumping and pillar bumping have been suggested as promising chip assembly methods to provide high-density interconnects and lower signal propagation delay [1,2]. Aluminum as metal interconnecting material over the decades in integrated circuits (ICs) manufacturing has been rapidly replaced with copper in majority IC products. A single copper metal layer with various test patterns of lines and vias and $400{\mu}m$ by $400{\mu}m$ interconnected pads are formed. Mask M1 allows metal interconnection patterns on 4" wafers with AZ1512 positive tone photoresist, and Cu/TiN/Ti layers are wet etched in two steps. We employed WPR, a thick patternable negative photoresist, manufactured by JSR Corp., which is specifically developed as dielectric material for multi- chip packaging (MCP) and package-on-package (PoP). Spin-coating at 1,000 rpm, i-line UV exposure, and 1 hour curing at $110^{\circ}C$ allows about $25{\mu}m$ thick passivation layer before performing wafer level soldering. Conventional Si3N4 passivation between Cu and WPR layer using plasma CVD can be an optional. To practice the board level flip chip assembly, individual students draw their own fan-outs of 40 rectangle pads using Eagle CAD, a free PCB artwork EDA. Individuals then transfer the test circuitry on a blank CCFL board followed by Cu etching and solder mask processes. Negative dry film resist (DFR), Accimage$^{(R)}$, manufactured by Kolon Industries, Inc., was used for solder resist for ball grid array (BGA). We demonstrated how Microelectronics Manufacturing Engineering education has been performed by presenting brief intermediate by-product from undergraduate and graduate students. Microelectronics Manufacturing Engineering, once again, is to educating engineers to actively work in the area of semiconductor manufacturing. Through one semester senior level hands-on laboratory course, participating students will have clearer understanding on microelectronics manufacturing and realized the importance of manufacturing yield in practice.

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Inflammation and Insufficient or Disordered Sleep (염증 반응과 수면 장애)

  • Lee, Suk Jun;Kim, Jinkwan
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 2015
  • Sleep is not only an essential physiological function, but also serves important roles in promoting growth, maturation, and overall health of humans. There is increasing interest regarding the impact of sleep and its disorders on the regulation of inflammatory processes and end-organ morbidities, particularly in the context of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and their complications. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is an increasingly common health problem in children. In the last decade, the emergence of increasing obesity rates has further led to remarkable increases in the prevalence of OSAS, along with more prominent neurocognitive, behavioral, cardiovascular and metabolic morbidities. Although the underlying mechanisms leading to OSAS-induced morbidities are likely multifactorial and remain to be fully elucidated, activation of inflammatory pathways by OSAS has emerged as an important pathophysiological component of the end-organ injury associated with this disorder. To this effect, it would appear that OSAS could be viewed as a chronic, low-grade inflammatory disorder. Furthermore, the concurrent presence of obesity and OSAS poses a theoretically increased risk of OSAS-related complications. In this study, we will critically review the current state of research regarding the impact of insufficient and disrupted sleep and OSAS on the immune processes and inflammatory pathways that underlie childhood OSAS as a distinctive systemic inflammatory condition in children, and will explore potential interactions between OSAS and obesity.