• Title/Summary/Keyword: CVD

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Study on Nucleation and Evolution Process of Ge Nano-islands on Si(001) Using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM을 이용한 Si (001) 표면에 Ge 나노점의 형성과 성장과정에 관한 연구)

  • Park, J.S.;Lee, S.H.;Choia, M.S.;Song, D.S.;Leec, S.S.;Kwak, D.W.;Kim, D.H.;Yang, W.C.
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.226-233
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    • 2008
  • The nucleation and evolution process of Ge nano-islands on Si(001) surfaces grown by chemical vapor deposition have been explored using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Ge nano-islands are grown by exposing the substrates to a mixture of gasses GeH4 and H2 at pressure of 0.1-0.5Torr and temperatures of $600-650^{\circ}C$. The effect of growth conditions such as temperature, Ge thickness, annealing time on the shape, size, number density, and surface distribution was investigated. For Ge deposition greater than ${\sim}5$ monolayer (ML) with a growth rate of ${\sim}0.1ML/sec$ at $600^{\circ}C$, we observed island nucleation on the surface indicating the transition from strained layer to island structure. Further deposition of Ge led to shape transition from initial pyramid and hut to dome and superdome structure. The lateral average size of the islands increased from ${\sim}20nm$ to ${\sim}310nm$ while the number density decreased from $4{\times}10^{18}$ to $5{\times}10^8cm^{-2}$ during the shape transition process. In contrast, for the samples grown at a relatively higher temperature of $650^{\circ}C$ the morphology of the islands showed that the dome shape is dominant over the pyramid shape. The further deposition of Ge led to transition from the dome to the superdome shape. The evolution of shape, size, and surface distribution is related to energy minimization of the islands and surface diffusion of Ge adatoms. In particular, we found that the initially nucleated islands did not grow through long-range interaction between whole islands on the surface but via local interaction between the neighbor islands by investigation of the inter-islands distance.

Effect of 1 Year E-mail Nutrition Education after Face-to-Face Encounter at Worksite: Changes in Cardiovascular Risk Factors (면대면 영양교육 후 1년간의 E-mail 영양교육이 직장인 남성의 심혈관 질환 위험인자 감소에 미치는 효과)

  • Oh, Hye-Sun;Jang, Mi;Hwang, Myung-Ok;Cho, Sang-Woon;Paek, Yun-Mi;Choi, Tae-In;Park, Yoo-Kyoung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.559-566
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    • 2009
  • Effective nutrition educations for prevention of chronic diseases for the general population are of great importance these days. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of nutrition education for cardiovascular risk factor reduction by e-mail education in male workers. The participants were divided into three groups by age; 28-39 age group, 40-49 age group, and 50-59 age group who got regular checkups for anthropometry and biochemistry. The 1 year program consisted of 15 topics containing information about metabolic syndrome (MS) and healthy eating behavior (intake of salt, fat and alcohol). Seven hundred thirty nine participants volunteered for the study [28-39 age group, n = 240; body mass index (BMI) = 24.9 $\pm$ 2.7 kg/m$^2$: 40' group, n = 276; BMI = 24.8 $\pm$ 2.6 kg/m$^2$: 50' group, n = 223; BMI = 24.9 $\pm$ 2.7 kg/m$^2$]. Percentage body fat (p < 0.05) and percentage of abdominal fat (p < 0.05), total cholesterol (p < 0.05), systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05), and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) were significantly decreased in all participants after the 1 year program. The total number of participants who had MS was decreased from 216 to 199 and especially the incidence of MS was decreased 27% in the group of subjects who were under the age 39. The e-mail worksite nutrition education program shows a substantial contribution to the development of effective CVD and chronic disease control and lifestyle nutrition educations that are applicable to and attractive for the large population at risk.

Carbon nanotube field emission display

  • Chil, Won-Bong;Kim, Jong-Min
    • Electrical & Electronic Materials
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    • v.12 no.7
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    • pp.7-11
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    • 1999
  • Fully sealed field emission display in size of 4.5 inch has been fabricated using single-wall carbon nanotubes-organic vehicle com-posite. The fabricated display were fully scalable at low temperature below 415$^{\circ}C$ and CNTs were vertically aligned using paste squeeze and surface rubbing techniques. The turn-on fields of 1V/${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ and field emis-sion current of 1.5mA at 3V/${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ (J=90${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$/$\textrm{cm}^2$)were observed. Brightness of 1800cd/$m^2$ at 3.7V/${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ was observed on the entire area of 4.5-inch panel from the green phosphor-ITO glass. The fluctuation of the current was found to be about 7% over a 4.5-inch cath-ode area. This reliable result enables us to produce large area full-color flat panel dis-play in the near future. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention because of their unique elec-trical properties and their potential applica-tions [1, 2]. Large aspect ratio of CNTs together with high chemical stability. ther-mal conductivity, and high mechanical strength are advantageous for applications to the field emitter [3]. Several results have been reported on the field emissions from multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs) and single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) grown from arc discharge [4, 5]. De Heer et al. have reported the field emission from nan-otubes aligned by the suspension-filtering method. This approach is too difficult to be fully adopted in integration process. Recently, there have been efforts to make applications to field emission devices using nanotubes. Saito et al. demonstrated a car-bon nanotube-based lamp, which was oper-ated at high voltage (10KV) [8]. Aproto-type diode structure was tested by the size of 100mm $\times$ 10mm in vacuum chamber [9]. the difficulties arise from the arrangement of vertically aligned nanotubes after the growth. Recently vertically aligned carbon nanotubes have been synthesized using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition(CVD) [6, 7]. Yet, control of a large area synthesis is still not easily accessible with such approaches. Here we report integra-tion processes of fully sealed 4.5-inch CNT-field emission displays (FEDs). Low turn-on voltage with high brightness, and stabili-ty clearly demonstrate the potential applica-bility of carbon nanotubes to full color dis-plays in near future. For flat panel display in a large area, car-bon nanotubes-based field emitters were fabricated by using nanotubes-organic vehi-cles. The purified SWNTs, which were syn-thesized by dc arc discharge, were dispersed in iso propyl alcohol, and then mixed with on organic binder. The paste of well-dis-persed carbon nanotubes was squeezed onto the metal-patterned sodalime glass throuhg the metal mesh of 20${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ in size and subse-quently heat-treated in order to remove the organic binder. The insulating spacers in thickness of 200${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ are inserted between the lower and upper glasses. The Y\ulcornerO\ulcornerS:Eu, ZnS:Cu, Al, and ZnS:Ag, Cl, phosphors are electrically deposited on the upper glass for red, green, and blue colors, respectively. The typical sizes of each phosphor are 2~3 micron. The assembled structure was sealed in an atmosphere of highly purified Ar gas by means of a glass frit. The display plate was evacuated down to the pressure level of 1$\times$10\ulcorner Torr. Three non-evaporable getters of Ti-Zr-V-Fe were activated during the final heat-exhausting procedure. Finally, the active area of 4.5-inch panel with fully sealed carbon nanotubes was pro-duced. Emission currents were character-ized by the DC-mode and pulse-modulating mode at the voltage up to 800 volts. The brightness of field emission was measured by the Luminance calorimeter (BM-7, Topcon).

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Trend in Research and Application of Hard Carbon-based Thin Films (탄소계 경질 박막의 연구 및 산업 적용 동향)

  • Lee, Gyeong-Hwang;Park, Jong-Won;Yang, Ji-Hun;Jeong, Jae-In
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • 2009.05a
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    • pp.111-112
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    • 2009
  • Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is a convenient term to indicate the compositions of the various forms of amorphous carbon (a-C), tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), hydrogenated amorphous carbon and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (a-C:H and ta-C:H). The a-C film with disordered graphitic ordering, such as soot, chars, glassy carbon, and evaporated a-C, is shown in the lower left hand corner. If the fraction of sp3 bonding reaches a high degree, such an a-C is denoted as tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), in order to distinguish it from sp2 a-C [2]. Two hydrocarbon polymers, that is, polyethylene (CH2)n and polyacetylene (CH)n, define the limits of the triangle in the right hand corner beyond which interconnecting C-C networks do not form, and only strait-chain molecules are formed. The DLC films, i.e. a-C, ta-C, a-C:H and ta-C:H, have some extreme properties similar to diamond, such as hardness, elastic modulus and chemical inertness. These films are great advantages for many applications. One of the most important applications of the carbon-based films is the coating for magnetic hard disk recording. The second successful application is wear protective and antireflective films for IR windows. The third application is wear protection of bearings and sliding friction parts. The fourth is precision gages for the automotive industry. Recently, exciting ongoing study [1] tries to deposit a carbon-based protective film on engine parts (e.g. engine cylinders and pistons) taking into account not only low friction and wear, but also self lubricating properties. Reduction of the oil consumption is expected. Currently, for an additional application field, the carbon-based films are extensively studied as excellent candidates for biocompatible films on biomedical implants. The carbon-based films consist of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, which are biologically harmless as well as the main elements of human body. Some in vitro and limited in vivo studies on the biological effects of carbon-based films have been studied [$2{\sim}5$].The carbon-based films have great potentials in many fields. However, a few technological issues for carbon-based film are still needed to be studied to improve the applicability. Aisenberg and Chabot [3] firstly prepared an amorphous carbon film on substrates remained at room temperature using a beam of carbon ions produced using argon plasma. Spencer et al. [4] had subsequently developed this field. Many deposition techniques for DLC films have been developed to increase the fraction of sp3 bonding in the films. The a-C films have been prepared by a variety of deposition methods such as ion plating, DC or RF sputtering, RF or DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECR-CVD), ion implantation, ablation, pulsed laser deposition and cathodic arc deposition, from a variety of carbon target or gaseous sources materials [5]. Sputtering is the most common deposition method for a-C film. Deposited films by these plasma methods, such as plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) [6], are ranged into the interior of the triangle. Application fields of DLC films investigated from papers. Many papers purposed to apply for tribology due to the carbon-based films of low friction and wear resistance. Figure 1 shows the percentage of DLC research interest for application field. The biggest portion is tribology field. It is occupied 57%. Second, biomedical field hold 14%. Nowadays, biomedical field is took notice in many countries and significantly increased the research papers. DLC films actually applied to many industries in 2005 as shown figure 2. The most applied fields are mold and machinery industries. It took over 50%. The automobile industry is more and more increase application parts. In the near future, automobile industry is expected a big market for DLC coating. Figure 1 Research interests of carbon-based filmsFigure 2 Demand ratio of DLC coating for industry in 2005. In this presentation, I will introduce a trend of carbon-based coating research and applications.

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Effect of substrate bias voltage on a-C:H film (기판 bias 전압이 a-C:H 박막의 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 유영조;김효근;장홍규;오재석;김근식
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.348-353
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    • 1997
  • Hydrogenated amorphous carbon(a-C:H) films were deposited on p-type Si(100) by DC saddle-field plasma enhanced CVD to investigate the effect of substrate bias on optical properties and structural changes. They were deposited using pure methane gas at a wide range of substrate bias at room temperature and 90 mtorr. The substrate bias voltage ($V_s$) was employed from $V_s=0 V$ to $V_s=400 V$. The information of optical properties was investigated by photoluminescence and transmitance. Chemical bondings of a-C:H have been explored from FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. The thickness and relative hydrogen content of the films were measured by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and elastic recoil detection (ERD) technigue. The growth rate of a-C:H film was decreased with the increase of $V_s$, but the hydrogen content of the film was increased with the increase of $V_s$. The a-C:H films deposited at the lowest $V_s$ contain the smallest amount of hydrogen with most of C-H bonds in the of $CH_2$ configuration, whereas the films produced at higher $V_s$ reveal dominant the $CH_3$ bonding structure. The emission of white photoluminescence from the films were observed even with naked eyes at room temperature and the PL intensity of the film has the maximum value at $V_s$=200 V. With $V_s$ lower than 200 V, the PL intensity of the film increased with V, but for V, higher than 200 V, the PL intensity decreased with the increase of $V_s$. The peak energy of the PL spectra slightly shifted to the higher energy with the increase of $V_s$. The optical bandgap of the film, determined by optical transmittance, was increased from 1.5 eV at $V_s$=0V to 2.3 eV at $V_s$=400 V. But there were no obvious relations between the PL peak and the optical gap which were measured by Tauc process.

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Improvement of Thermal Stability of In-situ Grown CoSi$_2$ Layer on Poly-Si Using Reactive Chemical Vapor Deposition (반응성 화학기상증착법에 의해 다결정실리콘 위에 직접성장된 $CoSi_2$ 층의 열적안정성의 개선)

  • Lee, Hui-Seung;Lee, Hwa-Seong;An, Byeong-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.11 no.8
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    • pp.641-646
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    • 2001
  • The $CoSi_2$ layers have been in-situ grown on undoped poly-Si by the reactive chemical vapor deposition of $Co({\Eta}^5-C_5H_5)(CO)_2$ at $650^{\circ}C$ and their thermal stabilities have been investigated in the temperature range of 800 to $1000^{\circ}C$. The $CoSi_2$ layer grown by the in-situ method had grains with large area of (111) plane, while grains with little area of (111) plane appeared on the $CoSi_2$ layer grown by the conventional two-step method where $CoSi_2$ formed first and transformed to $CoSi_2$. The thermal stability of the $CoSi_2$ layer grown by the in- situ process was improved by more than $100^{\circ}C$ higher than that of the $CoSi_2$ layer grown by the conventional two-step process. The $CoSi_2$ layer grown in situ on a large-grained Poly-Si was stable up to $950^{\circ}C$. The effect of stability improvement by the in situ growth was more pronounced when the grain sizes of the poly-Si substrate were small. The improved thermal stability of the in-situ grown $CoSi_2$ layer could be mainly due to the formation of a uniform $CoSi_2$ layer with the $CoSi_2$ grains, which are in the form of epitaxial-like growth on the each poly-Si grains, causing a reduction of the interfacial energy of the system.

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The Prevalence of Chronic Degenerative Disease and Utilization of Medical Facility in Rural Population (농촌지역(農村地域) 주민(住民)의 만성퇴행성질환(慢性退行性疾患) 유병률(有病率) 및 이용의료기관(利用醫療機關))

  • Ann, Kil-Soo;Chun, Byung-Yeol;Yeh, Min-Hae
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.209-220
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    • 1996
  • This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of chronic disease and utilization of medical facility in rural area. 5,797 persons were randomly selected from 28,883 rural residents who were over 30 years old and living in Moonkyung city in Kyungsangpook Province during the period October 1 1983 to February 28 1994. The person prevalence rate was 336 per 1,000. The prevalence rate in men(278 per 1,000) was higher than that(388 per 1,000) in women. The spell prevalence rate in men(367) was significantly higher than that(429) in women (p<0.05). The prevalence was increased with the age, 106 in the 30's. 223 in the40's, 336 in the 50's, 407 in the 60's, and 457 in the age group of 70 above. Of all chronic diseases, the prevalence of neuralgia ranked first(128), chronic gastrointestinal disorders(64), degenerative arthritis(54). hypertension (44) and diabetes (14) were followed in descending order. In men, the prevalence of neuralgia ranked first, chronic gastrointestinal disorders, degenerative arthritis, hypertension and bronchial asthma were followed in descending order. In women, the prevalence of neuralgia ranked first, degenerative arthritis, chronic gastrointestinal disorders, hypertension and diabetes were followed in descending order. The prevalences of neuralgia, degenerative arthritis and hypertension were significantly higher in women than those in men, however, those of cardiovascular disease, pulmonary tuberculosis and liver cirrhosis in men were significantly higher than those in women(p<0.05). Most patients with chronic diseases were more likely to utilize hospital and/or local clinics than public health facility or community health providers. Patients with neuralgia, degenerative arthritis and bronchial asthma tended to utilizing local clinics initially, however, they were changed to visit public health facility or community health providers afterwards. Patients with hypertension or pulmonary tuberculosis were more likely to visit public health facility, however, those with diabetes, cancer, heart failure, CVD, liver cirrhosis were more likely to visit hospital.

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The Expression of Adhesion Molecules on Alveolar Macrophages and Lymphocytes and Soluble ICAM-1 Level in Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavge(BAL) Fluid of Patients with Diffuse Interstitial Lung Diseases(DILD) (간질성 폐질환환자들의 기관지 폐포세척액내 폐포 대식세포와 임파구의 접착분자 발현 및 Soluble ICAM-1 농도에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Dong-Soon;Choi, Kang-Hyun;Yeom, Ho-Kee;Park, Myung-Jae;Lim, Chai-Man;Koh, Yoon-Suck;Kim, Woo-Sung;Kim, Won-Dong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.569-583
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    • 1995
  • Background: The expression of the adhesion molecules on the cell surface is important in the movement of cells and the modulation of immune response. DILD starts as an alveolitis and progresses to pulmonary fibrosis. So adhesion molecules in these patients is expected to be increased. There are several reports about adhesion molecules in DILD in terms of the percentage of positive cells in immuno-stain, in which the interpretation is subjective and the data were variable. Methods: So we measured the relative median fluorescence intensity(RMFI) which is the ratio of the FI emitted by bound primary monoclonal antibody to FI emitted by isotypic control antibody of the cells in BALF of 28 patients with DILD(IPF:10, collagen disease:7, sarcoidosis:9, hypersensitivity pneumonitis:2) and 9 healthy control. Results: RMFI of the ICAM-1 on AM($3.30{\pm}1.16$) and lymphocyte($5.39{\pm}.70$) of DILD were increased significantly than normal control($0.93{\pm}0.18$, $1.06{\pm}0.21$, respectively, p=0.001, P=0.003). RMFI of the CD18 on lymphocyte was also higher($24.9{\pm}14.9$) than normal($4.59{\pm}3.77$, p=0.0023). And there was a correlation between RMFI of ICAM on AM and the % of AM(r=-0.66, p=0.0001) and lymphocyte(r=0.447, p=0.0116) in BALF. Also RMFI of ICAM on lymphocyte had a significant (r=0.593, p=0.075) correlation with the % of IL-2R(+) lymphocyte in BALF. The soluble ICAM(sICAM) in serum was also significantly elevated in DILD($499.7{\pm}222.2\;ng/ml$) compred to normal($199.0{\pm}38.9$) (p=0.00097) and sICAM in BAL fluid was also significantly higher than normal control group($41.8{\pm}23.0\;ng/ml$ vs $20.1{\pm}13.6\;ng/ml$). There was a Significant correlation between sICAM level in serum and the expression of ICAM-l on AM(r=0.554, p=0.0259).Conclusion: These data suggest that in DILD the expression of adhesion molecules is increased in the AM and BAL lymphocytes with elevated serum sICAM, and these parameter may be useful in determining disease activity.

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