• Title/Summary/Keyword: CVD

Search Result 1,772, Processing Time 0.186 seconds

Food and Nutrient Intake Level by the Risk of Osteoporosis and Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Women: The use of the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2010-2011) (폐경 후 여성의 골다공증 및 심혈관계질환 위험도에 따른 영양소 및 식품섭취상태: 제5기 국민건강영양조사(2010-2011) 자료를 이용하여)

  • Kim, Hyobin;Kim, Heysook;Kwon, Oran;Park, Heejung
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
    • /
    • v.24 no.2
    • /
    • pp.152-162
    • /
    • 2019
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the food, nutrient intake, and diet quality of postmenopausal women at high risk of osteoporosis (OP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with those of control subjects. Methods: A total of 1,131 post-menopausal women aged over 45 years, who took the 2010-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), were included for analysis. These participants were classified into the following groups: the OP group, with a risk of OP (n=135); the CVD group, with a risk of CVD (n=373); the OP+CVD group, with a risk of OP and CVD concurrently (n=218); and the control group (n=405) according to bone mineral density (BMD) and CVD risk. Anthropometric measurements, blood profiles, dietary intake, and dietary quality indices were measured and compared among the four groups. Results: Waist circumference, total body fat percentage, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol were higher, and HDL-cholesterol and BMD were lower in the OP+CVD group than in the control group. In the food frequency questionnaire, the OP+CVD group had significantly higher frequencies of grain (except for multi-grain) and lower frequencies of fruit and dairy product. The frequency of consumption of red meat, processed meat, and carbonated beverages was higher in OP+CVD group. In nutrient density analysis, proteins and vitamin $B_2$ levels were significantly lower in the OP+CVD group than in the control group. The nutritional quality index (INQ) values of calcium were in the order of 0.63, 0.58, 0.56, and 0.55 in each group, and it was urgent to improve the dietary intake for calcium in postmenopausal women. In addition, vitamin $B_2$ was inadequately consumed by all groups. Conclusions: These results suggest that it is necessary to increase the intake of vitamin $B_2$ and calcium and decrease the frequency of intake of red meat, processed meat, and carbonated beverages in postmenopausal women with the risk of OP and CVD.

Comparison of Optimum Drilling Conditions of Aircraft CFRP Composites using CVD Diamond and PCD Drills (CVD 다이아몬드 및 PCD이 드릴을 이용한 항공용 CFRP 복합재료의 홀 가공성 비교)

  • Kwon, Dong-Jun;Wang, Zuo-Jia;Gu, Ga-Young;Park, Joung-Man
    • Composites Research
    • /
    • v.24 no.4
    • /
    • pp.23-28
    • /
    • 2011
  • Recently CFRP laminate joints process by bolts and nets are developed rapidly in aircraft industries. However, there are serious drawback during jointing process. Many hole processes are needed for the manufacturing and structural applications using composite materials. Generally, very durable polycrystalline crystalline diamond (PCD) drill has been used for the CFRP hole process. However, due to the expensive price and slow process speed, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond drill has been used increasingly which are relatively-low durability but easily-adjustable process speed via drill shape change and price is much lower. In this study, the comparison of hole process between PCD and CVD diamond coated drills was done. First of all, CFRP hole processbility was evaluated using the equations of hole processing conditions (feed amount per blade, feed speed). The comparison on thermal damage occurring from the CFRP specimen was also studied during drilling process. Empirical equation was made from the temperature photo profile being taken during hole process by infrared thermal camera. In addition, hole processability was compared by checking hole inside condition upon chip exhausting state for two drills. Generally, although the PCD can exhibit better hole processability, hole processing speed of CVD diamond drill exhibited faster than PCD case.

The Relationship between Cerebrovascular Mortality and Community Health Indicators in Gangwon-do (강원도의 뇌혈관질환 사망과 지역사회 건강 지표와 관련성)

  • Sim, Jeoung-Ha;Son, Mi-A
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
    • /
    • v.34 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-12
    • /
    • 2009
  • Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize the community health indicators affecting standardized mortality rate of cerebrovascular diseases(CVD) and to identify the relationship between CVD mortality and community health indicators in Gangwon-do. Methods: The community health indicators included material deprivation index, medical resource, rates of road pavement and local tax. CVD mortality and the material deprivation index were calculated in the registered death data and the 2000 census which were obtained from the Korean National Statistics Office. The community health indicators were measured using 2001 statistical year book of Ganwon-do. Data were analyzed by using Excel 2003, SAS 9.1. CVD mortality and material deprivation index were visualized by Arcview 9.1. Results: CVD mortality varied by region and sex in Gangwon-do. The highest CVD mortality in male and female were noted at Goseong-gun, the lowest CVD mortality in male was at Yangyang-gun as it of female at Pyeongchang-gun. In Taebaek city where material deprivation index was also the highest; in Pyeongchang-gun was the lowest. Also the higher material deprivation index in some regions was the higher CVD mortality was. CVD mortality was not related with community health indicators. Conclusions: The results showed the regional difference of mortality of CVD among counties and cities in Gangwon-do. It is recommended that other community health indicators besides material deprivation index, road pavement rate, medical resources and local tax affecting CVD mortality need to be considered to improve the preventive strategies.

Characterizations of i-a-Si:H and p-a-SiC:H Film using ICP-CVD Method to the Fabrication of Large-area Heterojunction Silicon Solar Cells

  • Jeong, Chae-Hwan;Jeon, Min-Sung;Kamisako, Koichi
    • Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials
    • /
    • v.9 no.2
    • /
    • pp.73-78
    • /
    • 2008
  • We investigated for comparison of large-area i-a-Si:H and p-a-SiC:H film quality like thickness uniformity, optical bandgap and surface roughness using both ICP-CVD and PECVD on the large-area substrate(diameter of 100 mm). As a whole, films using ICP-CVD could be achieved much uniform thickness and bandgap of that using PECVD. For i-a-Si:H films, its uniformity of thickness and optical bandgap were 2.8 % and 0.38 %, respectively. Also, thickness and optical bandgap of p-a-SiC:H films using ICP-CVD could be obtained at 1.8 % and 0.3 %, respectively. In case of surface roughness, average surface roughness (below 5 nm) of ICP-CVD film could be much better than that (below 30 nm) of PECVD film. HIT solar cell with 2 wt%-AZO/p-a-SiC:H/i-a-Si:H/c-Si/Ag structure was fabricated and characterized with diameter of 152.3 mm in this large-area ICP-CVD system. Conversion efficiency of 9.123 % was achieved with a practical area of $100\;mm\;{\times}\;100\;mm$, which can show the potential to fabrication of the large-area solar cell using ICP-CVD method.

Physical Properties and Morphology of Carbon Nanotubes Prepared by Thermal and Plasma CVD of Acetylene (아세틸렌의 열 및 플라즈마 CVD법으로 제조한 탄소나노튜브의 물성과 구조적 특성)

  • Kim, Myung-Chan;Moon, Seung-Hwan;Lim, Jae-Seok;Hahm, Hyun-Sik;Kim, Myung-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.21 no.2
    • /
    • pp.174-181
    • /
    • 2004
  • Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) using various combination of binary catalysts with four transition metals such as Fe, Co, Cu, and Ni. In the preparation of CNTs from acetylene precursor by thermal CVD, the CNTs with very high yield of 43.6 % was produced over $Fe-Co/Al_2O_3$. The highest yield of CNTs was obtained with the catalyst reduced for 3 hr and the yield was decreased with increasing reduction time to 5 hr, due to the formation of $FeAl_2O_4$ metal-aluminate. On the other hand, the CNTs prepared by acethylene plasma CVD had more straight, smaller diameter, and larger aspect ratio(L/D) than those prepared by thermal CVD, although their yield had lower value of 27.7%. The degree of graphitization of CNTs measured by $I_d/I_g$ value and thermal degradation temperature were 1.04 and $602^{\circ}C$, respectively.

Deposition Efficiency Modeling of TiN ICP-CVD system (TiN ICP-CVD장치의 증착 성능 모델링)

  • Son, Seok-Jae;Ju, Jeong-Hun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.88-89
    • /
    • 2008
  • TiN ICP-CVD 공정에서의 펄스 직류인가는 동일한 전력공급 하에 보다 효과적이고 우수한성능의 증착능을 나타낸다. 이에 따른 공적 최적화를 위해 전산모사 프로그램을 이용하여 전자의 에너지 분포 모사가 공정에 미치는 영향을 조사하였다.

  • PDF

Manufacturing Mechanism of FIB-CVD using Focused Ion Beam (집속이온빔의 가공 공정 메카니즘 연구)

  • 강은구;최병열;이석우;홍원표;최헌종
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.925-928
    • /
    • 2004
  • The application of focused ion beam (FIB) technology in micro/nano machining has become increasingly popular. Its use in micro/nano machining has advantages over contemporary photolithography or other micro/nano machining technologies such as small feature resolution, the ability to process without masks and being accommodating for a variety of materials and geometries. This paper was carried out some experiments and verifications of mechanism on FIB-CVD using SMI8800 made by Seiko. FIB-CVD has in fact proved to be commercially useful for repair processes because the beam can be focused down to 0.05$\mu\textrm{m}$ dimensions and below and because the same tool can be used to sputter off material with sub-micrometer precision simply by turning off the gas ambient. Recently the chemical vapour deposition induced ion beam has been required more deposition rate and accurate pattern because of trying to manufacture many micro and nano parts. Therefore this paper suggested the optimization parameters and discussed some mechanism of chemical vapour deposition induced ion beam on FIB-CVD for simple pattern.

  • PDF

Latchup characteristics of BL/BILLI retrograde twin well CMOS with MeV ion implanted Bored Layer (MeV 이온주입에 의한 매입층을 갖는 BILLI retrograde well과 latchup 특성)

  • Kim, Jong-Kwan;Kim, In-Soo;Kim, Young-Ho;Shin, Sang-Woo;Sung, Yung-Kwon
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.1270-1273
    • /
    • 1997
  • We have investigated the latchup characteristics of BL/BILLI retrograde twin well CMOS that has the high energy ion implanted buried layer to intend for more improvement of latchup compare to conventional retrograde well and BILLI structures. We explored the dependence of various latchup characteristics such as n+ trigger latchup and p+ trigger latchup on the buried layer implant doses. We show various DC latchup characteristics that allow us to evaluate each technology and suggest guidelines for the reduction of latchup susceptibility.

  • PDF