• Title/Summary/Keyword: DRE

검색결과 82건 처리시간 0.121초

고온 고압 조건에서의 난분해성 액상폐기물 분해 특성 (Decomposition Characteristics of Non-Degradable Liquid Waste under High Temperature and High Pressure Conditions)

  • 이강우;손병현
    • 한국산학기술학회논문지
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    • 제8권6호
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    • pp.1572-1578
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    • 2007
  • 지정폐기물은 폐산, 폐알칼리, 폐유, 폐유기용제, 폐합성수지, 먼지, 슬러지, 감염성폐기물 등이며, 이 중에서 많은 부분이 폐산, 폐알칼리, 폐유, 폐유기용제, 폐합성수지 등 액상지정폐기물이다. 이와 같은 액상지정폐기물을 적절히 분해하기 위해 먼저 액상지정폐기물에 대하여 밀도, 삼성분, 원소분석, 발열량 등 물리화학적 특성을 분석하고 0.3톤/일급의 고온고압시스템을 설계하였으며, 반응온도는 $1,200^{\circ}C$ 이상, 압력은 최대 4 $kg_f/cm^2(g)$ 조건에서 실험을 수행하였다. 폐유의 평균 밀도값은 0.93 g/mL. 폐유기용제는 0.93 g/mL, 폐합성수지는 0.91 g/mL이었으며, 삼성분과 원소분석 결과 폐유기용제는 수분 54.34%, 회분 3.35%, 가연분 42.31%이었고, 탄소 29.73%, 수소 3.82%, 산소 5.94%, 질소 2.31%, 황 0.51%이었다. 폐유의 평균 저위발열량은 8,294 kcal/kg, 폐유기용제의 경우 7,462 kcal/kg, 그리고 례합성수지는 5,809 kcal/kg으로 나타났다. 액상례기물 중 유해물질의 분해 특성을 보기 위해 대상 폐기물에 혼합한 톨루엔, TCE 그리고 톨루엔이 고온에서 분해될 때 발생하는 벤젠 3가지 물질에 대해 고온 고압 처리 전후의 양으로 각물질의 DRE를 비교한 결과, 상압조건에서 벤젠 99.73%, 톨루엔 99.73%, TCE가 99.95% 이었으며 가압조건에서 벤젠99.97%, 톨루엔 99.82%, TCE가 99.99%으로 나타나 가압조건이 상압조건보다 유해물질의 분해율이 향상된 결과를 보였다. 본 실험결과 TCE/톨루엔 혼합물의 DRE는 99.73% 이상으로 매우 높게 나타나 유해물질이 적절히 분해됨을 확인할 수 있었다.nes., CWT+35‰+Anes., NWT+15‰+Anes. 및 CWT+15‰+Anes.의 8개 실험구를 2반복으로 설정하여 경북울진∼부산까지 약 400 km (6시간)를 차량수송하였다. 수송용기는 스티로폼상자(66×42×20 cnn)로서, 여기에 해수 3 L와 액화산소를 넣은 비닐봉지에 넙치 8마리씩 수용하여 수송하였다. 혈액의 성상 및 분석항목은 수송전ㆍ후에 채혈하여 비교하였다. 수송전 hematocrit는 22.2±3.8%에서 수송후 NWT+35‰에서 15.3+3.9%, CWT+35‰은 16.7±3.0%, NWT+15‰구에서는 19.2±1.8%로 낮아졌으며, CWT+15‰구는 20.9±3.6%로 수송전과 차이가 없었다. 한편 NWT+15‰+Anes.구는 17.8±0.9%, CWT+15‰+Anes.구는 14.5±1.5%로 낮아졌다. Cortisol은 수송전 2.4±0.1 ng/ml로부터 CWT+35‰구는 16.7±12.8 ng/ml, NWT+35‰구는 47.9+19.8 ng/ml, NWT+15‰구는 43.5±13.9 ng/ml, CWT+15‰구는 26.1±8.3 ng/ml, NWT+15‰+Anes.구는 61.7±3.3 ng/ml, CWT+15‰+Anes.구는 86.1±19.0 ng/ml로 높아졌다. Glucose는 수송전 74.2±32.6 mg/dl로부터 NWT+35‰구는 197.9±27.5 mg/dl, CWT+35‰구도 272.1±29.9 mg/dl로 유의하게 높아졌다. Na/sup +/의 수송전 농도는 163.5±0.6 mEq/L로부터 NWT+35‰구와 CWT+35‰구는 각각 175.3±1.2 mEq/L, 190.0±5.0 mEq/L로 높아졌으며, 다른 실험구에서는 차이가 없었다. 본 연구 결과, cortisol과 glucose에서 수송전보다는 모든 실험구에서 높게

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전기가열방식 스크러버의 NF3 제거 효율 (The progress in NF3 destruction efficiencies of electrically heated scrubbers)

  • 문동민;이진복;이지연;김동현;이석현;이명규;김진석
    • 분석과학
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    • 제19권6호
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    • pp.535-543
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    • 2006
  • 현재 반도체 및 LCD(Liquid Crystal Display) 제조 공정에 널리 사용하는 $NF_3$는 국제적으로 대기중 배출량에 대한 규제를 실시 중인 온실가스 중의 하나다. 온실가스의 배출량 감축을 위하여 국내 대상 산업체들은 $NF_3$ 배출량의 감소에 지속적으로 노력을 해 오고 있다. 본 연구는 LCD를 제조하는 국내 3사에 설치된 $NF_3$ 처리용 전기가열방식 스크러버(scrubber)의 제거효율(DRE, Destruction and Removal Efficiency)과 process chamber에서의 $NF_3$ 사용 비율(use rate in process)을 측정하였다. 스크러버의 효율을 정확하게 측정하기 위하여, 비활성 기체인 He을 일정 유량으로 주입시켜주는 방법으로 시료를 채취하고, 정밀 가스질량분석기(Gas-MS)를 이용하여 시료 중 화학종들의 분압을 측정하였다. 세 회사에 설치되어 있는 스크러버의 효율을 측정한 결과, 2004년 이전에 설치한 스크러버의와 그 이후 개선한 스크러버의 DRE는 각각 52%와 95% 이상임을 확인하였다. 또한 Process chamber의 $NF_3$ 사용 효율은 1세대 및 2세대 공정라인에 설치한 RFSC(Radio Frequency Source Chamber)의 경우 75% 보다 낮지만, 3세대 이상 라인에 설치한 RPSC(Remote Plasma Source Chamber)의 경우는 95% 이상으로 측정이 되었다. 반도체 및 디스플레이 공정에 개선된 스크러버와 RPSC식 process chamber를 사용할 경우 $NF_3$ 배출량을 99.95% 이상 줄일 수 있을 것으로 예상된다. 따라서 $NF_3$에 대한 국내 3사의 온실가스 감축 목표가 성공적으로 이루어 질 것으로 예상된다.

도시 저소득층 생활안정 대책의 효과분석 (An analysis of the Impact of Policies Toward the Urbar Poor)

  • 남성일;김경환
    • 지역연구
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    • 제9권2호
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    • pp.59-69
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    • 1993
  • This paper empirically analyzes economic impacts of policy instruments and suggests policy alternations to improve the urban poor's alternatioes to improve the urban poor's standard of living in Korea. By estimating a joint decsim model of hours of work and housing demand utilizing a sample of 270 urban poor housholds, the study finds that the efects of policies dre diverse. The dncome subsidy to msst effectwe in increasing comsumption while the wage increase is least likely to decrease hours of work. Policy suggection are firstly that policies to ward the urban poor should hot be overlapping or contradictory, and secondly that the policies should be able to increase the poor's wage earning abiliby.

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관측 불가능한 바이어스가 있는 시스템의 칼만필터 추정특성 (Estimation Properties of Kalman Filter for the System with Unobservable Bias)

  • 송기원;이상정
    • 제어로봇시스템학회논문지
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    • 제7권10호
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    • pp.874-881
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    • 2001
  • By showing the existence of the ARE solution and the convergence property of the DRE solution, this paper proves that a Kalman filter for the linear system with the unobservable bias is stable. It is also shown that the Kalman filter has a biased steady state estimation error whose covariance is affected mainly by the unobservable bias. Finally, the results are illustrated through a 2nd order system example including the inertial navigation system.

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전립선 암 진단 및 치료를 위한 로봇기술 응용 현황 (A Survey of Robotic Technologies for Diagnosis and Treatment of Prostate Cancer)

  • 안범모;박기한;이효상;김정
    • 제어로봇시스템학회논문지
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    • 제16권9호
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    • pp.852-859
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    • 2010
  • Robotic techniques can be one of the promised solutions to address the prostate cancer which is one of the most important public health problems in medical fields. Despite several past and on-going dedicated researches, the systematic techniques and completed theories have not been established well. Therefore we review the state-of-the-art literature on the applications of engineering technologies with particular focus on diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. The current status of the elastography and systematic DRE are presented as novel diagnostic tools, and an overview of the applied technologies to address the limits of the treatment (radical prostectomy and brachytherapy) is reviewed.

Fabrication of Beta-phase Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) Nanowire Arrays for Polymer Light-Emitting Diode Using Direct Printing Method

  • 백장미;이기석;성명모
    • 한국진공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • 한국진공학회 2012년도 제42회 동계 정기 학술대회 초록집
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    • pp.560-560
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    • 2012
  • We report a one-step fabrication method of Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) nanowire array with pronounced ${\beta}$-Phase. We use liquid-bridge-mediated nanotransfer molding (LB-nTM) which is a new direct nano-patterning method based on the direct transfer of various materials from a mold to a substrate via liquid layer. The formation of the ${\beta}$-phase morphology in the resulting PFO nanowire array was evidenced by the presence of an absorption peak at 435nm. With the collection polarizer oriented parallel to the wire long axis, the PL emission was most intense and an emission dichroic ratio, DRE, of 3.7 was determined. The nanowire array have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also, we simply fabricated structure of device of ITO/PFO nanowire arrays/Al and the electroluminescence spectra were recorded at various applied voltage.

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덤프 소각기에서 유해폐기물 분해에 대한 수치해석 (A Numerical Simulation of Hazardous Waste Destruction in a Dump Incinerator)

  • 전영남;정오진;채종성
    • 한국대기환경학회지
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    • 제16권6호
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    • pp.665-674
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    • 2000
  • A major source of the hazardous waste generated is from chemical industries producing plastics, herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated solvents. All of these processes produce a class if hazardous waste termed the chlorinated hydrocarbons(CHCs), either directly or from undesirable side reactions. In this study, we investigated the destruction characteristics of hazardous waste through incineration. A nonequilibrium combustion model was used to describe the effect of the chemical kinetics due to the flame inhibition characteristics of $CCl_4$ which was used as the surrogate of hazardous waste. A parametric screening studies was made in a dump incinerator proposed in this study. The dump incinerator showed high $CCl_4$ DRE(Destruction and Removal Efficiency) as 5 nines. $CCl_4$/CH$_4$ ratio appeared to be most important in the destruction of $CCl_4$ through incineration.

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Adsorption of Specific Organics in Water on GAC and Regeneration of GAC by Countercurrent Oxidative Reaction

  • Ryoo, Keon-Sang;Kim, Tae-Dong;Kim, Yoo-Hang
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • 제23권6호
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    • pp.817-824
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    • 2002
  • Granular activated carbon(GAC) is highly effective in removing organic compounds which are resistant to biological disintegration in wastewater treatment. However, GAC has reached its full adsorptive capacity, GAC needs to be regenerated before it can be used for a further adsorption cycle. Countercurrent oxidative reaction (COR) technique has been developed and evaluated for the regeneration of spent GAC. Various parameters such as flame temperature, the loss of carbon, destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of organic compounds, surface area, surface structure, adsorptive capacity, etc. were examined to determine the performance of COR. The results of these tests showed that adosorptive capacity of regenerated GAC was completely recovered, the loss of carbon was controllable, flame temperature was high enough to insure complete destruction and removal $(\geq99.9999%)$ of specific organics of interest, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), that are thermally stable, and on formation of toxic byproducts such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were detected during the regeneration process. The COR technique is environmentally benign, easy to use and less copital intensive than other available regeneration technologies.

Regulation of Cyp 1A1 Gene Expression by Retinoic Acid Receptor, Retinoid X Receptor and Constitutive Androstane Receptor in Rainbow Trout Hepatoma Cells(Rth 149)

  • Kim, Ji-Sun;Yang, So-Yeun;Seo, Mi-Jung;Sheen, Yhun-Yhong
    • 한국독성학회:학술대회논문집
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    • 한국독성학회 2003년도 추계학술대회
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    • pp.136-136
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    • 2003
  • Exposure of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes a variety of biological and toxicology effects, most of which are mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The ligand-bound AhR as a heterodimer with AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) binds to its specific DNA recognition site, the dioxin-responsive element (DRE), and it results in increased transcription of CVP1A1 gene.(omitted)

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THERMAL PLASMA DECOMPOSITION OF FLUORINATED GREENHOUSE GASES

  • Choi, Soo-Seok;Park, Dong-Wha;Watanabe, Takyuki
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • 제44권1호
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    • pp.21-32
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    • 2012
  • Fluorinated compounds mainly used in the semiconductor industry are potent greenhouse gases. Recently, thermal plasma gas scrubbers have been gradually replacing conventional burn-wet type gas scrubbers which are based on the combustion of fossil fuels because high conversion efficiency and control of byproduct generation are achievable in chemically reactive high temperature thermal plasma. Chemical equilibrium composition at high temperature and numerical analysis on a complex thermal flow in the thermal plasma decomposition system are used to predict the process of thermal decomposition of fluorinated gas. In order to increase economic feasibility of the thermal plasma decomposition process, increase of thermal efficiency of the plasma torch and enhancement of gas mixing between the thermal plasma jet and waste gas are discussed. In addition, noble thermal plasma systems to be applied in the thermal plasma gas treatment are introduced in the present paper.