• Title/Summary/Keyword: Design of experiments

Search Result 589, Processing Time 0.137 seconds

Low-Cost Cultivation and Sporulation of Alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. Strain AK13 for Self-Healing Concrete

  • Hong, Minyoung;Kim, Wonjae;Park, Woojun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.29 no.12
    • /
    • pp.1982-1992
    • /
    • 2019
  • The alkaliphilic, calcium carbonate precipitating Bacillus sp. strain AK13 can be utilized in concrete for self-repairing. A statistical experimental design was used to develop an economical medium for its mass cultivation and sporulation. Two types of screening experiment were first conducted to identify substrates that promote the growth of the AK13 strain: the first followed a one-factor-at-a-time factorial design and the second a two-level full factorial design. Based on these screening experiments, barley malt powder and mixed grain powder were identified as the substrates that most effectively promoted the growth of the AK13 strain from a range of 21 agricultural products and by-products. A quadratic statistical model was then constructed using a central composite design and the concentration of the two substrates was optimized. The estimated growth and sporulation of Bacillus sp. strain AK13 in the proposed medium were 3.08 ± 0.38 × 108 and 1.25 ± 0.12 × 108 CFU/ml, respectively, which meant that the proposed low-cost medium was approximately 45 times more effective than the commercial medium in terms of the number of cultivatable bacteria per unit price. The spores were then powdered via a spray-drying process to produce a spore powder with a spore count of 2.0 ± 0.7 × 109 CFU/g. The AK13 spore powder was mixed with cement paste, yeast extract, calcium lactate, and water. The yeast extract and calcium lactate generated the highest CFU/ml for AK13 at a 0.4:0.4 ratio compared to 0.4:0.25 (the original ratio of the B4 medium) and 0.4:0.8. Twenty-eight days after the spores were mixed into the mortar, the number of vegetative cells and spores of the AK13 strain had reached 106 CFU/g within the mortar. Cracks in the mortar under 0.29 mm were healed in 14 days. Calcium carbonate precipitation was observed on the crack surface. The mortar containing the spore powder was thus concluded to be effective in terms of healing micro-cracks.

Machinability investigation and sustainability assessment in FDHT with coated ceramic tool

  • Panda, Asutosh;Das, Sudhansu Ranjan;Dhupal, Debabrata
    • Steel and Composite Structures
    • /
    • v.34 no.5
    • /
    • pp.681-698
    • /
    • 2020
  • The paper addresses contribution to the modeling and optimization of major machinability parameters (cutting force, surface roughness, and tool wear) in finish dry hard turning (FDHT) for machinability evaluation of hardened AISI grade die steel D3 with PVD-TiN coated (Al2O3-TiCN) mixed ceramic tool insert. The turning trials are performed based on Taguchi's L18 orthogonal array design of experiments for the development of regression model as well as adequate model prediction by considering tool approach angle, nose radius, cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut as major machining parameters. The models or correlations are developed by employing multiple regression analysis (MRA). In addition, statistical technique (response surface methodology) followed by computational approaches (genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization) have been employed for multiple response optimization. Thereafter, the effectiveness of proposed three (RSM, GA, PSO) optimization techniques are evaluated by confirmation test and subsequently the best optimization results have been used for estimation of energy consumption which includes savings of carbon footprint towards green machining and for tool life estimation followed by cost analysis to justify the economic feasibility of PVD-TiN coated Al2O3+TiCN mixed ceramic tool in FDHT operation. Finally, estimation of energy savings, economic analysis, and sustainability assessment are performed by employing carbon footprint analysis, Gilbert approach, and Pugh matrix, respectively. Novelty aspects, the present work: (i) contributes to practical industrial application of finish hard turning for the shaft and die makers to select the optimum cutting conditions in a range of hardness of 45-60 HRC, (ii) demonstrates the replacement of expensive, time-consuming conventional cylindrical grinding process and proposes the alternative of costlier CBN tool by utilizing ceramic tool in hard turning processes considering technological, economical and ecological aspects, which are helpful and efficient from industrial point of view, (iii) provides environment friendliness, cleaner production for machining of hardened steels, (iv) helps to improve the desirable machinability characteristics, and (v) serves as a knowledge for the development of a common language for sustainable manufacturing in both research field and industrial practice.

Application of Statistical Analysis for Optimization of Organic Wastes Acidogenesis (유기성 폐기물의 산발효 최적화를 위한 통계학적 분석 방안의 적용)

  • Jeong, Emma;Kim, Hyun-Woo;Nam, Joo-Youn;Oh, Sae-Eun;Hong, Seung-Mo;Shin, Hang-Sik
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
    • /
    • v.30 no.8
    • /
    • pp.781-788
    • /
    • 2008
  • This study shows how to find out optimum co-substrate conditions and continuous operating parameters for maximum acidification of three different organic wastes - livestock wastewater, sewage sludge and food waste. Design of experiments and statistical analysis were revealed as appropriate optimization schemes in this study. Analyses of data obtained from batch tests demonstrated the optimum substrate mixing ratio, which was determined by maximum total volatile fatty acids(TVFA) increase and soluble chemical oxygen demand(SCOD) increase simultaneously. Suggested optimum mixing ratio of livestock wastewater, sewage sludge and food waste was 0.4 : 1.0 : 1.1 based on COD, respectively. Response surface methodology(RSM) contributed to find out optimum operating parameter - hydraulic retention time(HRT) and substrate concentration - for the semi-continuous acidogenic fermentation of mixed organic wastes. The optimum condition for maximum TVFA increase was 2 days of HRT and 29,237 mg COD/L. Empirical equations obtained through regression analysis could predict that TVFA increase would be 73%. To confirm the validity of the statistical experimental strategies, a confirmation experiment was conducted under the obtained optimum conditions, and relative error between theoretical and experimental results was within 4%. This result reflects that using statistical and RSM technique can be effectively used for the optimization of real waste treatment processes.

Process Design of Trimming to Improve the Sheared-Edge of the Vehicle Door Latch based on the FE Simulation and the Taguchi Method (유한요소해석 및 다구찌법을 이용한 자동차 도어 래치의 전단면 품질 향상을 위한 트리밍 공정 설계)

  • Lee, Jung-Hyun;Lee, Kyung-Hun;Lee, Seon-Bong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
    • /
    • v.17 no.11
    • /
    • pp.483-490
    • /
    • 2016
  • Automobile door latch is a fine design and assembly techniques are required in order to produce them in a small component assembly shape such as a spring, injection products, a small-sized motor. The door latch is fixed to not open the door of the car plays an important role it has a direct impact on the driver's safety. In this study, during trimming of the terminals of the connector main components of the car door latch, reduce rollover and conducted a research to find a suitable effective shear surface. Using the Taguchi method with orthogonal array of Finite Element Analysis and optimal Design of Experiments were set up parameters for the shear surface quality of the car door latch connector terminals. The design parameters used in the analysis is the clearance, the radius, and the blank holding force, the material of the connector terminal is a C2600. Trimming process optimum conditions suggested by the analysis has been verified by experiments, the shear surface shape and dimensions of a final product in good agreement with forming analysis results.Taguchi method from the above results in the optimization for the final rollover and effective shear surface improved for a vehicle door latch to the connector terminal can be seen that the applicable and useful for a variety of metal forming processes other than the trimming process is determined to be applicable.

TOPSIS-Based Multi-Objective Shape Optimization for a CRT Funnel (TOPSIS 를 적용한 CRT 후면유리의 다중목적 형상최적설계)

  • Lee, Kwang-Ki;Han, Jeong-Woo;Han, Seung-Ho
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
    • /
    • v.35 no.7
    • /
    • pp.729-736
    • /
    • 2011
  • The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) is regarded as a classical method of multiple attribute decision making (MADM), often used to solve various decision-making or selection problems. It is based on the concept that the chosen alternative should have the shortest distance from the positive ideal solution and the farthest distance from the negative ideal solution. The TOPSIS can be applied to a design process for carrying out multi-objective shape optimization wherein the best and worst alternatives are to be decided. In this paper, multi-objective shape optimization using the TOPSIS and Rational Bezier curve was applied to the funnel of a cathode-ray tube (CRT). In order to minimize the weight and first principal stress, a new multi-objective shape optimization methodology is proposed, wherein the relative-closeness coefficients of the TOPSIS are defined as the performance indices of a multi-objective function and evaluated by response surface models. This methodology enables the designer to decide on the best solution from a number of design specification groups by examining the various conflicts between the weight and the first principal stress.

Design of Moving Magnet Type Optical Pickup Actuator with High Frequencies of the Flexible Modes (높은 유연 모드 주파수를 갖는 가동 자석형 광 픽업 액추에이터 개발)

  • Song, Myeong-Gyu;Kim, Yoon-Ki;Park, Young-Pil;Yoo, Jeong-Hoon;Park, No-Cheol
    • Transactions of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering
    • /
    • v.17 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1043-1049
    • /
    • 2007
  • Data transfer rate and storage capacity are main criteria of the performance of the optical disk drive. The highest data transfer rate and the largest storage capacity is most desirable. To increase these performances, the actuator of the optical disk drive should have a high servo bandwidth to compensate the vibration of an optical disk. The servo bandwidth is limited by some flexible modes of the actuator, thus it is essential to increase the natural frequencies of the flexible modes. In this paper, we suggested a moving magnet type actuator having high frequencies of the flexible modes. Generally, the moving magnet type actuator has an advantage to increase the natural frequencies of the flexible modes because the moving magnet type actuator has simple structure and the Young's modulus of magnet is high. However, large moving mass and inefficiency of EM(electromagnetic) circuit cut down driving sensitivities of the actuator. To improve driving sensitivities, we designed the model with the closed electromagnetic circuit for tracking direction. In addition, driving sensitivities and the natural frequencies of the flexible modes were improved by using DOE(design of experiments) for electromagnetic circuit and modifying the lens holder.

Influence and Application of an External Variable Magnetic Field on the Aqueous HCl Solution Behavior: Experimental Study and Modelling Using the Taguchi Method (염산 수용액 거동에 대한 가변 외부 자기장의 적용과 영향: 실험 연구 및 Taguchi 법을 이용한 모델링)

  • Hashemizadeh, Abbas;Ameri, Mohammad Javad;Aminshahidy, Babak;Gholizadeh, Mostafa
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
    • /
    • v.29 no.2
    • /
    • pp.215-224
    • /
    • 2018
  • Influences of the magnetic field on 5, 10 and 15 wt% (1.5, 3 and 4.5 M) HCl solution behaviour, which has widespread applications in petroleum well acidizing, were investigated in various conditions. Differences in the pH of magnetized hydrochloric acid compared to that of normal hydrochloric acid were measured. Taguchi design of experimental (DoE) method were used to model effects of the magnetic field intensity, concentration, velocity and temperature of acid in addition to the elapsed time. The experimental results showed that the magnetic field decreases [$H^+$] concentration of hydrochloric acid up to 42% after magnetization. Increasing the magnetic field intensity (with 28% contribution), concentration (with 42% contribution), and velocity of acid increases the effect of magnetic treatment. The results also demonstrated that the acid magnetization was-not influenced by the fluid velocity and heating. It was also displayed that the acid preserves its magnetic memory during time. The optimum combination of factors with respect to the highest change of [$H^+$] concentration was obtained as an acid concentration of 10% and an applied magnetic field of 4,300 Gauss. Due to the reduction of HCl reaction rate under the magnetization process, it can be proposed that the magnetized HCl is a cost effective and reliable alternative retarder in the matrix acidizing of hydrocarbon (crude oil and natural gas) wells.

Robust Optimal Design of Disc Brake Based on Response Surface Model Considering Standard Normal Distribution of Shape Tolerance (표준정규분포를 고려한 반응표면모델 기반 디스크 브레이크의 강건최적설계)

  • Lee, Kwang-Ki;Lee, Yong-Bum;Han, Seung-Ho
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
    • /
    • v.34 no.9
    • /
    • pp.1305-1310
    • /
    • 2010
  • In a practical design process, the method of extracting the design space information of the complex system for verifying, improving, and optimizing the design process by taking into account the design variables and their shape tolerance is very important. Finite element analysis has been successfully implemented and integrated with design of experiment such as D-Optimal array; thus, a response surface model and optimization tools have been obtained, and design variables can be optimized by using the model and these tools. Then, to guarantee the robustness of the design variables, a robust design should be additionally performed by taking into account the statistical variation of the shape tolerance of the optimized design variables. In this study, a new approach based on the use of the response surface model is proposed; in this approach, the standard normal distribution of the shape tolerance is considered. By adopting this approach, it is possible to simultaneously optimize variables and perform a robust design. This approach can serve as a means of efficiently modeling the trade-off among many conflicting goals in the applications of finite element analysis. A case study on the robust optimal design of disc brakes under thermal loadings was carried out to solve multiple objective functions and determine the constraints of the design variables, such as a thermal deformation and weight.

Dynamic Characteristic Analysis Procedure of Helicopter-mounted Electronic Equipment (헬기 탑재용 전자장비의 동특성 분석 절차)

  • Lee, Jong-Hak;Kwon, Byunghyun;Park, No-Cheol;Park, Young-Pil
    • Transactions of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering
    • /
    • v.23 no.8
    • /
    • pp.759-769
    • /
    • 2013
  • Electronic equipment has been applied to virtually every area associated with commercial, industrial, and military applications. Specifically, electronics have been incorporated into avionics components installed in aircraft. This equipment is exposed to dynamic loads such as vibration, shock, and acceleration. Especially, avionics components installed in a helicopter are subjected to simultaneous sine and random base excitations. These are denoted as sine on random vibrations according to MIL-STD-810F, Method 514.5. In the past, isolators have been applied to avionics components to reduce vibration and shock. However, an isolator applied to an avionics component installed in a helicopter can amplify the vibration magnitude, and damage the chassis, circuit card assembly, and the isolator itself via resonance at low-frequency sinusoidal vibrations. The objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic characteristics of an avionics component installed in a helicopter and the structural dynamic modification of its tray plate without an isolator using both a finite element analysis and experiments. The structure is optimized by dynamic loads that are selected by comparing the vibration, shock, and acceleration loads using vibration and shock response spectra. A finite element model(FEM) was constructed using a simplified geometry and valid element types that reflect the dynamic characteristics. The FEM was verified by an experimental modal analysis. Design parameters were extracted and selected to modify the structural dynamics using topology optimization, and design of experiments(DOE). A prototype of a modified model was constructed and its feasibility was evaluated using an FEM and a performance test.