• Title/Summary/Keyword: FCC

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Purpose and Impact of FCC's Open Internet Rule Making (FCC의 망중립성 고시 제정 의의와 영향)

  • Byun, J.H.;Cho, E.J.
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Trends
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.84-99
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    • 2011
  • FCC는 2010년 12월 21일 인터넷의 개방성 유지를 위한 고시(Order)를 발표하였다. 2005년에 FCC가 망중립성 4원칙을 발표한 이래 5년에 걸친 노력 끝에 최종적으로 법적 효력을 갖는 고시 제정에 이르게 된 것이다. FCC는 인터넷의 개방성 확보가 소비자 선택권, 표현의 자유 및 이용자의 통제권 보장에 필수적이며, 경쟁 촉진 및 자유로운 혁신 환경 조성을 가능케 하는 원동력이라 판단하고 있다. 본 고에서는 FCC의 인터넷 개방성 유지를 위한 고시 제정 배경, 고시에 포함된 주요 규칙(Rules)의 세부 내용과 의의, 고시 제정에 따른 영향 및 향후 전망 등을 제시하고자 한다.

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Effect of Fluoride Conversion Coating on the Corrosion Resistance and Adhesion of E-painted AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

  • Fazal, Basit Raza;Moon, Sungmo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • pp.124.2-124.2
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    • 2016
  • Corrosion resistance and adhesion of electro-paint (E-paint) with fluoride conversion coating (FCC) on AZ31 Mg alloy were studied. Corrosion resistance and adhesion were studied as a function of FCC-treatment time and concentration of FCC-bath. Aqueous hydrogen fluoride (HF) solutions, with concentrations ranging from 0.5 M to 5 M, were used to form FCC on chemically polished AZ31 Mg alloy samples for six different times; 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180s. The results from salt spray test (SST) showed that corrosion resistance of E-paint appeared to decrease with increasing FCC treatment times in low concentration FCC baths. The number of blisters formed on the FCC-treated samples increased with increasing FCC treatment time of more than 1 min in low concentration (0.5 M to 1 M) solutions. On the other hand, samples treated in the 5 M HF solution for 120s showed no delamination or blistering even after 1200h of SST.

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Reuse of Spent FCC Catalyst for Removing Trace Olefins from Aromatics

  • Pu, Xin;Luan, Jin-Ning;Shi, Li
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.33 no.8
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    • pp.2642-2646
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    • 2012
  • Pretreatment of spent FCC catalyst and its application in remove trace olefins in aromatics were investigated in this research. The most effective pretreatment route of spent FCC catalyst was calcining at $700^{\circ}C$ for 1 h, washing with 5% oxalic acid solution in ultrasonic reactor and dried. Treated spent FCC catalyst was modified with metal halides, then to prepare catalyst to remove trace olefins in aromatics. X-ray diffraction, Pyridine-FTIR, $N_2$ adsorption-desorption and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) were used to investigate the pretreatment process. The result showed that the performance of the treated spent FCC catalyst was much greater than that of the spent FCC catalyst, which indicted the possibility and improvement of this research.

Pediatric Nurses' Perspectives on Family-Centered Care in Sri Lanka: A Mixed-Methods Study

  • Done, Rishani Deepika Gangodage;Oh, Jina;Im, Mihae;Park, Jiyoung
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.72-81
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate nurses' perceptions and performance of family-centered care (FCC) at a children's hospital in Sri Lanka and to explore the feasibility of implementing FCC in the context of the Sri Lankan healthcare system. Methods: A convergent, parallel, mixed-methods design was applied to understand Sri Lankan nurses' perspectives on FCC. In total, 157 nurses working at a large teritagy children's hospital responded to a self-report survey and 18 nurses participated in focus group interviews. Results: Of the factors of FCC, family participation in caring for children received the highest score (4.09±0.51) for perceptions, and information-sharing received the highest score (3.54±0.55) for performance. The qualitative data revealed the following five themes: (a) importance of the family in caring for children; (b) helping families during children's hospitalization; (c) taking steps to implement FCC, even with imperfect knowledge; (d) barriers in the current situation; and (e) suggested strategies to promote FCC. Conclusion: Participants endorsed the concept of FCC and demonstrated some aspects of it in their day-to-day practice. The results indicate a clear knowledge deficit and several challenges, which need to be addressed to effectively implement FCC.

Fermented Chaga-Cheonggukjang attenuates obesity condition and suppresses inflammatory response of the liver in high fat diet-induced mice

  • Sohn, Eun-Hwa;Park, Yuna;Na, Ha Gyoon;Kim, Min-Ah;So, Gyeongseop;Kim, Sung Hyeok;Jang, Ki-Hyo;Kim, Mi-Ja;Namkoong, Seung;Koo, Hyun Jung
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.97-97
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    • 2019
  • Chaga mushroom and Cheonggukjang have been used in alternative medicine. In this study, we determined the anti-obesity effects of fermented Chaga-Cheonggukjang (FCC), an extract prepared by secondary fermentation of a mixture of Cheonggukjang and Chaga by Lactobacillus acidophilus on highfat diet (HFD)-induced mice. Male ICR mice were fed a normal diet or HFD in the presence or absence of 3% and 5% FCC (FCC3 and FCC5). After 3 months, the mice were sacrificed, and serum and tissue samples were examined. Body weight and epididymal fat pad (EFP) weight were significantly lowered in FCC3 and FCC5 groups compared to those in the HFD control group. FCC supplementation suppressed serum triglyceride (TG) and increased serum HDL levels. Serum GOT, GPT, leptin levels and hepatic COX-2 mRNA expression were significantly higher in the HFD groups, and these increases were significantly attenuated by FCC supplementation. FCC suppressed body weight and EFP weight gain, as well as inflammatory responses in the liver in HFD-fed mice. Thus, FCC supplementation may have protective effects for obesity-related disease.

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Fast Congestion Control to Transmit Bursty Traffic Rapidly in Satellite Random Access Channel (위성 랜덤 액세스 채널에서 Bursty 트래픽의 신속한 전송을 위한 빠른 혼잡 제어 기법)

  • Noh, Hong-Jun;Lee, Yoon-Seong;Lim, Jae-Sung;Park, Hyung-Won;Lee, Ho-Sub
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.39C no.11
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    • pp.1031-1041
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, we propose a traffic load control scheme, called fast congestion control (FCC), for a satellite channel using enhanced random access schemes. The packet repetition used by enhanced random access schemes increases not only the maximum throughput but also the sensitivity to traffic load. FCC controls traffic load by using an access probability, and estimates backlogged traffic load. If the backlogged traffic load exceeds the traffic load corresponding to the maximum throughput, FCC recognizes congestion state, and processes the backlogged traffic first. The new traffic created during the congestion state accesses the channel after the end of congestion state. During the congestion state, FCC guarantees fast transmission of the backlogged traffic. Therefore, FCC is very suitable for the military traffic which has to be transmit urgently. We simulate FCC and other traffic load control schemes, and validate the superiority of FCC in latency.

Digital Device에 대한 미국 FCC의 자기입증제도

  • 박상서
    • The Proceeding of the Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.4-13
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    • 1996
  • 미국 연방통신위원회(FCC)에서는 1996. 5. 14일 부로 Digital Device에 대한 인증제도를 자기입증방식(DoC)으로 변경한다는 방침을 확정, 발표하였다(FCC 96-206, ET Docket No. 95-19, Report and Order). 이 새로운 자기입증제도는 기존 FCC의 타율규제방식(Certification, Verification, Notification등) 을 탈피하여 제조자 자율에 의한 인증개념을 도입한 것으로서, 어떤 제품(Digital Device에 대해서 FCC가 정한 기술기준에 의거 시험하여 합격하였을 경우, 제조자(인증권자) 스스로 적합선언서 (DoC : Declaration of Conformity)를 채택하고 해당 제품에 인증마크를 부착하여 출하시킨다는 것으로 기존 EU의 CE-Mark 인증제도 중 Module A와 유사한 제도이다. FCC는 이와 같은 제도변경을 위해서 1995년 2월에 이미 기본방침을 발표하여 그동안 관련업계 의 광범위한 의견수렴을 거쳤으며, 필요한 법적보완사항을 위해서 일부 통신법을 개정, 완료하였 고(1996 통신법 403(f), 상무성, NIST 등 관계기관과의 의견조정을 마친 후 본 시행안을 확정, 공표 하였다.

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The Recent Progress of Network Neutrality Debate (망중립성 논의 최근 전개 동향)

  • Byun, J.H.;Cho, E.J.
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Trends
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.121-129
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    • 2010
  • FCC가 2005년 인터넷상에서 콘텐츠, 애플리케이션, 단말기의 비차별적 접속을 보장하기 위해 망중립성 4원칙을 발표한 이후 망중립성 원칙의 타당성에 대한 찬반 논란이 계속되어 왔다. 2008년에는 Comcast의 파일공유사이트 접속 차단 조치에 대해서 FCC가 망중립성 원칙 위반행위로 판정하여 중지 명령(Comcast order)을 내린 바 있다. 그러나 2010년 4월 사법부가 2008년 FCC의 Comcast order를 무효화함에 따라 망중립성 원칙 적용을 시도하던 FCC의 노력이 무산될 위기에 놓여 있다. 본 고에서는 FCC의 망중립성 원칙 제시 배경과 추진 경과, 사법부의 최근 판결내용, 이해당사자의 찬반 논란을 살펴보고 향후 망중립성 원칙의 법적 근거를 마련하기 위한 FCC의 선택지(option)를 전망하고자 한다.

The Effects of Zeolite-Type Catalysts on the Pyrolysis Reaction of PP to Produce Fuel-oil (폴리프로필렌 수지 이용 연료유 생성을 위한 열분해 반응에서 제올라이트계 촉매의 영향)

  • Bak, Young-Cheol;Choi, Joo-Hong;Oh, Se-Hui
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.442-448
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    • 2012
  • The effects of zeolite-type catalysts addition on the thermal decomposition of the PP resin have been studied in a thermal analyzer, a Pyrolyser GC-mass, and a small batch reactor. The zeolite type catalysts tested were natural zeolite, used FCC catalyst, and ZSM-5. As the results of TGA experiments, the pyrolysis starting temperature for PP varied in the range of $330{\sim}360^{\circ}C$ according to the heating rate. Addition of the zeolite type catalysts in the PP resin increased the pyrolysis rate in the order of used FCC catalyst> natural zeolite> ZSM-5 > PP resin. Adding the used FCC catalyst in the PP reduced most effectively the pyrolysis finishing temperature. In the PY-G.C. mass experiments, addition of zeolite type catalysts decreased the molecular weight of pyrolyzed product. In the batch system experiments, the mixing of used FCC catalyst enhanced best the initial yield of fuel oil, but the final yield of fuel oil was 2% higher in the case of mixing of natural zeolite. Also in the carbon number analysis, used FCC catalyst was the most useful one in this experiments for fuel oil.

Property Changes of Ni-Co Film with the Change of Co Concentration in Sulfamate-chloride Bath (Sulfamate-Chloride Bath에서 Co 농도의 변화에 따른 Ni-Co 필름의 특성 변화)

  • Yoon, Pilgeun;Park, Deok-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2020
  • Sulfamate-chloride baths were fabricated to study the properties of the electrodeposited Ni and NiCo thin films. The dependences of current efficiency, deposit composition of Ni and Co, residual stress, surface morphology and microstructure of electrodeposited Ni and NiCo thin films on CoCl2 concentration in sulfamate-chloride baths were investigated. The current efficiency was measured to be more than about 90%, independent of the changes of CoCl2 concentration in the baths. Residual stress of Ni and NiCo thin films was increased from about 45 to about 250 MPa with varying CoCl2 concentration from 0 to 0.210 M CoCl2 in the baths and then reached to a plateau, about 250 MPa above 0.420 M CoCl2 concentration. Nodular surface morphologies were observed at most CoCl2 concentrations in the baths except 0.210 M. NiCo thin film electrodeposited from the bath with 0.210 M CoCl2 concentration showed an acicular surface morphology. Pure Ni thin film consists of FCC(111), FCC(200), FCC(220), and FCC(311) peaks without any preferred orientation. On the other hand NiCo thin films make up of HCP(100), FCC(111), HCP(101), FCC(200), FCC(220) or HCP(110), FCC(311) or HCP(112) and FCC(222) peaks. It was revealed from the analysis of XRD result that FCC(111) peak at the NiCo thin film electrodeposited from the bath with 0.084 M CoCl2 concentration can be regarded as the preferred orientation. However the peak of the preferred orientation was changed to FCC(220) or HCP(110) above 0.084 M CoCl2 concentration in the baths. Then the intensity of FCC(220) or HCP(110) peak was gradually decreased with increasing CoCl2 concentration further. The crystalline size of pure Ni thin film was observed to be about 53 ㎛ and those of NiCo thin films were in the range of 35~45 ㎛.