• Title/Summary/Keyword: FTSP

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Implementation and Evaluation of a Time Synchronization Protocol for USN (USN을 위한 시간 동기화 프로토콜의 구현 및 평가)

  • Yang, Tao;Lee, Hyung-Bong
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.213-220
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    • 2008
  • In a distributed processing environment composed of many independent systems connected by networks, it is very important and difficult to make time synchronization between the systems. Especially in the USN environment the time synchronization is still more difficult than in general distributed processing environment because energy is limited and communication function is feeble. Even though of these difficulties, the USN environment requires higher precision of time synchronization. We of the typical applications requesting very strict time synchronization in USN is TDMA MAC. This paper proposes and evaluates a new time synchronization protocol HTSP(Hierarchical Time Synchronization Protocol) which is an advanced version of the FTSP(Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol) published recently. The time synchronization precision of the HTSP is equal to that of the FTSP, but the energy consumption of the HTSP is lower than that of the FTSP owing to the reduced number of broadcast messages. The simulation results show that the energy consumption of the HTSP is only 74% of that of the FTSP.

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Time Synchronization Robust to Topology Change Through Reference Node Re-Election (기준노드의 재선정을 통한 토폴로지 변화에 강인한 시간 동기화)

  • Jeon, Young;Kim, Taehong;Kim, Taejoon;Lee, Jaeseang;Ham, Jae-Hyun
    • KIPS Transactions on Computer and Communication Systems
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    • v.8 no.8
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    • pp.191-200
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    • 2019
  • In an Ad-hoc network, a method of time synchronizing all the nodes in a network centering on one reference node can be used. A representative algorithm based on a reference node is Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol (FTSP). In the process of sending and receiving messages, predictable and unpredictable delays occur, which should be removed because it hinders accurate time synchronization. In multi-hop communications, hop delays occur when a packet traverses a number of hops. These hop delays significantly degrade the synchronization performance among nodes. Therefore, we need to find a method to reduce these hop delays and increase synchronization performance. In the FTSP scheme, hop delays can be greatly increased depending on the position of a reference node. In addition, in FTSP, a node with the smallest node ID is elected as a reference node, hence, the position of a reference node is actually arbitrarily determined. In this paper, we propose an optimal reference node election algorithm to reduce hop delays, and compare the performance of the proposed scheme with FTSP using the network simulator OPNET. In addition, we verify that the proposed scheme has an improved synchronization performance, which is robust to topology changes.

A Time Synchronization Protocol for Energy-Constrained Wireless Networks (에너지 제한적인 무선 네트워크에서 동작하는 시각 동기화 프로토콜)

  • Bae, Shi-Kyu
    • KIPS Transactions on Software and Data Engineering
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    • v.4 no.9
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    • pp.385-392
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    • 2015
  • In IoT(Internet of Things), it is important for wireless networks to communicate data created among resource-constrained wireless nodes, where time synchronization is needed for meaningful data creation and transmission. Time Synchronization by flooding is one of the mostly used protocols for WSN(Wireless Sensor Networks). Even though this type of scheme has some advantages over other types (i.e. a simple algorithm and independency of topology and so on), too many data transmission is required, leading to large power consumption. So, reducing transmission data is an important issue for energy efficiency in this kind of networks. In this paper, a new Flooding-based time synchronization protocol is proposed to use energy efficiently by reducing a transmitted traffic. The proposed scheme's performance has been evaluated and compared with an representative scheme, FTSP(Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol) by simulation. The results are shown that the proposed scheme is better than FTSP.

Cooperative Analog and Digital (CANDI) Time Synchronization for Large Multihop Network (다중 홉 네트워크를 위한 디지털 및 아날로그 협동 전송 시간 동기화 프로토콜)

  • Cho, Sung-Hwan;Ingram, Mary Ann
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.37C no.11
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    • pp.1084-1093
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    • 2012
  • For large multihop networks, large time synchronization (TS) errors can accumulate with conventional methods, such as TPSN, RBS, and FTSP, since they need a large number of hops to cover the network. In this paper, a method combining Concurrent Cooperative Transmission (CCT) and Semi- Cooperative Spectrum Fusion (SCSF) is proposed to reduce the number of hops to cover the large network. In CCT, cooperating nodes transmit the same digitally encoded message in orthogonal channels simultaneously, so receivers can benefit from array and diversity gains. SCSF is an analog cooperative transmission method where different cooperators transmit correlated information simultaneously. The two methods are combined to create a new distributed method of network TS, called the Cooperative Analog and Digital (CANDI) TS protocol, which promises significantly lower network TS errors in multi-hop networks. CANDI and TPSN are compared in simulation for a line network.