• Title/Summary/Keyword: Filler

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Hyaluronidase: An overview of its properties, applications, and side effects

  • Jung, Hyunwook
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.297-300
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    • 2020
  • Hyaluronidase, an enzyme that breaks down hyaluronic acid, has long been used to increase the absorption of drugs into tissue and to reduce tissue damage in cases of extravasation of a drug. With the increasing popularity of hyaluronic acid filler, hyaluronidase has become an essential drug for the correction of complications and unsatisfactory results after filler injection. For this reason, when performing procedures using hyaluronic acid filler, a sufficient knowledge of hyaluronidase is required. In order for hyaluronidase to dissolve a hyaluronic acid filler, it must interact with its binding sites within the hyaluronic acid. The reaction of a filler to hyaluronidase depends on the hyaluronic acid concentration, the number of crosslinks, and the form of the filler. Hyaluronidase is rapidly degraded and deactivated in the body. Therefore, in order to dissolve a hyaluronic acid filler, a sufficient amount of hyaluronidase must be injected close to the filler. If the filler is placed subcutaneously, injection of hyaluronidase into the filler itself may help, but if the filler is placed within a blood vessel, it is sufficient to inject hyaluronidase in the vicinity of the vessel, instead of into the filler itself. Allergic reactions are a common side effect of hyaluronidase. Most allergic reactions to hyaluronidase are local, but systemic reactions may occur in infrequent cases. Since most allergic responses to hyaluronidase are immediate hypersensitivity reactions, skin tests are recommended before use. However, some patients experience delayed allergic reactions, which skin tests may not predict.

Mechanical and Thermal Behavior of Polyamide-6/Clay Nanocomposite Using Continuum-based Micromechanical Modeling

  • Weon, Jong-Il
    • Macromolecular Research
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.797-806
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    • 2009
  • The mechanical and thermal behaviors of polyamide-6/clay nanocomposites were studied using the continuum-based, micromechanical models such as Mori-Tanaka, Halpin-Tsai and shear lag. Mechanic-based model prediction provides a better understanding regarding the dependence of the nanocomposites' reinforcement efficiency on conventional filler structural parameters such as filler aspect ratio ($\alpha$), filler orientation (S), filler weight fraction (${\Psi}_f$), and filler/matrix stiffness ratio ($E_f/E_m$). For an intercalated and exfoliated nanocomposite, an effective, filler-based, micromechanical model that includes effective filler structural parameters, the number of platelets per stack (n) and the silicate inter-layer spacing ($d_{001}$), is proposed to describe the mesoscopic intercalated filler and the nanoscopic exfoliated filler. The proposed model nicely captures the experimental modulus behaviors for both intercalated and exfoliated nanocomposites. In addition, the model prediction of the heat distortion temperature is examined for nanocomposites with different filler aspect ratio. The predicted heat distortion temperature appears to be reasonable compared to the heat distortion temperature obtained by experimental tests. Based on both the experimental results and model prediction, the reinforcement efficiency and heat resistance of the polyamide-6/clay nanocomposites definitely depend on both conventional (${\alpha},\;S,\;{\Psi}_f,\;E_f/E_m$) and effective (n, $d_{001}$) filler structural parameters.

Characteristic Evaluation of Aluminium Filler Tube of Automotive (자동차 알루미늄 필라튜브의 특성평가)

  • Kim, Hae-Ji;Lee, Un-Ryeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.34-39
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    • 2010
  • The characteristic evaluation of an aluminium filler tube for automotive is presented in this paper. The material of filler tube was used AL3003 aluminium. In characteristic evaluation of an aluminium filler, we measured the corrosion, chemical resistance, weight, leak, welding strength, exciting endurance, and the solt spray test etc.. It has been shown that the weight decreased approximately 61% in aluminum filler tube developed comparing with steel filler tube. As the characteristic evaluation on the manufactured aluminium filler it was enough satisfied to use at the automotive filler tube.

Development of Extracellular Matrix (ECM) based Dermal Filler (세포외기질(ECM) 생체소재 기반 필러 개발 연구)

  • Kim, Na Hyeon;Park, Sang-Hyug
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.137-142
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    • 2019
  • Numerous efforts are being made to develop an ideal dermal filler that should be bio-compatibility, non-immunogenicity, long-lasting and biodegradable without a toxic secretion. Biomaterials of dermal fillers are hyaluronic acid filler, calcium filler, PMMA filler and collagen filler depending on the ingredient. Although hyaluronic acid (HA) is most widely used, it has shortages such as short shelf life and low mechanical strength compare to extracellular matrix (ECM). The cartilage ECM composed of collagen type II, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and in a minor part with glycoproteins. In this study, we developed a cartilage ECM injectable filler capable of improving biocompatibility and longevity compared with hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers. The ECM hydrogel was cross-linked by the reaction of N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) for mechanical enhancement. Prepared ECM filler was compared with cross-linked HA by butanediol diglycidyle ether (BDDE), which is the most widely used natural polymers for dermal filler. In the results, the articular cartilage ECM hydrogel has great potential as a dermal filler to improve the biophysical and biological performance.

The Analysis of change of insulation resistance by filler on low voltage multi core cables (저압다심케이블에서 충진물(개재물)이 절연저항에 미치는 영향 분석)

  • Ko, Young-Hoon;Park, Eui-Seok
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.71-72
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    • 2007
  • The insulation is a important part of cable. In thisb paper, measured the insulation resistance for analysing of change of insulation resistance by filler on low voltage multicore cables. The insulation resistance is not effected by only insulation material, but also filler material. The insulation resistance is different with measuring before filling and after filling by filler. When develope the new filler or cable, the volume resistance of filler must be considered.

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Electron Beam Modification of Dual Phase Filler: Surface Characteristics and its Influence on the Properties of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber Vulcanizates

  • Shanmugharaj A. M.
    • Rubber Technology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.94-103
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    • 2004
  • The present work describes modification of dual phase filler by electron beam irradiation in presence of multifunctional acrylates like trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) or silane coupling agent like bis (3-triethoxysilylpropyltetrasulphide) and in-fluence of the modified fillers on the physical properties of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) vulcanizates. Modulus at 300 % elongation increases whereas the tensile strength decreases with increase in radiation dose for the dual phase filler loaded styrene-butadiene rubber vulcanizates (SBR). However, modulus and tensile strength significantly increase, which is more, pronounced at higher filler loadings for TMPTA modified dual phase filler loaded SBR. These changes in properties are explained by the equilibrium swelling data and Kraus plot interpreting the polymer-filler interaction. Electron beam modification of the filler results in a reduction of tan ${\delta}$ at $70^{\circ}C$, a parameter for rolling resistance and increase in tan ${\delta}$ at $0^{\circ}C$, a parameter for wet skid resistance of the SBR vulcanizates. Finally, the influence of modified fillers on the properties like abrasion resistance, tear strength and fatigue failure and the improvement in the properties have been explained in terms of polymer-filler interaction.

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Effects of Filler Types and Compositions on the Physical Properties of Chloroprene Rubber (충전제 종류 및 배합비가 클로로프렌고무의 물성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Duk-Joon;Lee, Young-Kwan;Choi, Sang-Soon;Kim, Tae-Ho
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.295-301
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    • 1997
  • The effects of filler types and compositions on the final properties such as tensile strength, % elongation, hardness, and specific gravity of chloroprene rubber were investigated. The fillers involved in this investigation were HAF-type carbon black, Mistron, and white clay, For each filler, the variation of filler compositions gave almost the linear effects on the all properties investigated. For a fixed filler composition, different filler types gave different influential strength on rubber properties. After linearlization of experimental data with respect to each filler composition, the simple linear addition of each property with respect to filler compositions was applied to predict the final properties of the filler included rubber systems. For the chloroprene rubber system including the fillers composed of Mistron(25phr)/HAF(20phr)/clay(35phr), the predicted properties were well in accordance with the experimental results. Similar results were obtained for other additives such as processing oil and accelerator.

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Nickel Plating Techniques of Nylon-Inorganic Filler Alloy (Nylon-Inorganic Filler Alloy상의 니켈 도금 기술)

  • Roh, Yun-Chan
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.67-72
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    • 1999
  • Optimal pretreatment processes for metal plating on engineering plastics, especially on Nylon-inorganic filler alloy was studied. For Nylon-inorganic filler alloy, adhesion strength between resin surface and metal could be improved by just etching process that eliminate amorphous layer. In the SEM picture and surface roughness measurement, etching treatment was found to make enabled the surface condition very rough and the adhesion strength good. It was also found that the surface condition of plated article and its adhesion strength partly depended upon molding condition of Nylon-inorganic filler alloy. EDS, peaks showed that what kinds of and how much of the metal elements remained on the resin surface after pretreatment processes. Cr did not affect on adsorption of Sn and Pd remarkably.

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Effect of High Filler Loading on the Reliability of Epoxy Holding Compound for Microelectronic Packaging (반도체 패키지 봉지재용 에폭시 수지 조성물의 신뢰특성에 미치는 실리카 고충전 영향)

  • 정호용;문경식;최경세
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.51-63
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    • 1999
  • The effects of high filler loading technique on the reliability of epoxy molding compound (EMC) as a microelectronic encapsulant was investigated. The method of high filler loading was established by the improvement of maximum packing fraction using the simplified packing model proposed by Ouchiyama, et al. With the maximum packing fraction of filler, the viscosity of EMC wart lowered and the flowability was improved. As the amount of filler in EMC increased, several properties such as internal stress and moisture absorption were improved. However, the adhesive strength with the alloy 42 leadframe decreased when the filler content was beyond the critical value. It was found that the appropriate content of filler was important to improve the reilability of EMC, and the optimum filler combination should be selected to obtain high reliable EMC filled with high volume fraction of filler.

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BRAZING CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN CEMENTED CARBIDES AND STEEL USED BY AG-IN BRAZING FILLER

  • Nakamura, Mitsuru;Itoh, Eiji
    • Proceedings of the KWS Conference
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    • pp.551-554
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    • 2002
  • As a general rule, the brazing process between cemented carbides and steel used by Silver (Ag) type brazing filler. The composition of Ag type filler were used Ag-Cu-Zn-Cd type filler mainly. But, the demand of Cadmium (Cd)-free in Ag type filler was raised recently. The reason why Cd-free in Ag brazing filler were occupied to vaporize as a CdO$_2$ when brazing process, because of Cd element was almost low boiling point of all Ag type filler elements. And, CdO$_2$ was a very harmful element for the human body. This experiment was developed Cd-freeing on Ag type filler that was used Indium (In) instead of Cd element. In this experiment, there were changed from 0 to 5% In addition in Ag brazing filler and investigated to most effective percentage of Indium. As a result, the change of In addition instead of Cd, there was a very useful element and obtained same property only 3% In added specimens compared to Cd 19% added specimens. These specimens were obtained same or more deflective strength. In this case, there were obtained 70 MPa over strength and wide brazing temperature range 650-800 C. A factor of deflective strength were influenced by composition and the shape of $\beta$ phase and between $\beta$ phase and cemented carbides interface. Indium element presented as $\alpha$ phase and non-effective factor directly, but it's occupied to solid solution hardening as a phase. $\beta$ phase were composed 84-94% Cu-Ni-Zn elements mainly. Especially, the presence of Ni element in interface was a very important factor. Influence of condensed Ni element in interface layer was increased the ductility and strength of brazing layer. Therefore, these 3% In added Ag type filler were caused to obtain a high brazing strength.

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