• Title/Summary/Keyword: Millimeter wave

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An Analysis on the Properties of Beam Coupling by Using Gaussian Beam Propagation Theory (가우시언 빔 전송 이론을 이용한 빔 결합 특성 해석)

  • Han, Seog-Tae;Kang, Jin-Man;Lee, Jeong-Won;Je, Do-Hyung;Jung, Moon-Hee;Kim, Soo-Yeon;Wi, Seog-Oh
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.1324-1333
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    • 2010
  • In this paper, three kinds of beam coupling losses which occur in a quasi-optics circuit for millimeter wave receiver system have been intensively investigated. First, the beam coupling losses which are caused by mismatch of beam waists radii and their positions between those of one and the other have been evaluated. It shows that beam coupling losses due to mismatch of beam waists radii and their positions between two quasi-optics circuits can be minimized if beam waist radius is chosen as larger than 3 times the operation wavelength. Second, the beam coupling losses have been studied when the axis of propagation of one beam is tilted with respect to that of the other beam. It is noted that smaller beam waist radius results in greater tolerance to tilts and angular misalignments. Third, the beam coupling cases in which two beams are offset if their axes of propagation are parallel but one is displaced relative to the other have been investigated. It is confirmed that beam waists radii with larger than 3 times operation wavelength are less sensitive to lateral offsets.

Deep Learning-Based Prediction of the Quality of Multiple Concurrent Beams in mmWave Band (밀리미터파 대역 딥러닝 기반 다중빔 전송링크 성능 예측기법)

  • Choi, Jun-Hyeok;Kim, Mun-Suk
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.13-20
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    • 2022
  • IEEE 802.11ay Wi-Fi is the next generation wireless technology and operates in mmWave band. It supports the MU-MIMO (Multiple User Multiple Input Multiple Output) transmission in which an AP (Access Point) can transmit multiple data streams simultaneously to multiple STAs (Stations). To this end, the AP should perform MU-MIMO beamforming training with the STAs. For efficient MU-MIMO beamforming training, it is important for the AP to estimate signal strength measured at each STA at which multiple beams are used simultaneously. Therefore, in the paper, we propose a deep learning-based link quality estimation scheme. Our proposed scheme estimates the signal strength with high accuracy by utilizing a deep learning model pre-trained for a certain indoor or outdoor propagation scenario. Specifically, to estimate the signal strength of the multiple concurrent beams, our scheme uses the signal strengths of the respective single beams, which can be obtained without additional signaling overhead, as the input of the deep learning model. For performance evaluation, we utilized a Q-D (Quasi-Deterministic) Channel Realization open source software and extensive channel measurement campaigns were conducted with NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) to implement the millimeter wave (mmWave) channel. Our simulation results demonstrate that our proposed scheme outperforms comparison schemes in terms of the accuracy of the signal strength estimation.

A CYANOACETYLENE STUDY OF THE MOLECULAR DISK IN STAR FORMING REGIONS

  • Chung, H.S.;Kameya, Osamu;Morimoto, Masaki
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.217-271
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    • 1991
  • We have observed dense core around young stellar objects, DR21, S140, Orion-KL, and L1551 using four millimeter-wave transitions of $HC_3N\;J$=4-3, J=5-4, J=10-9, and J=12-11. The spatial distribution of $HC_3N$ emission closely resembles the morphology of the previous CS observations that trace high density gas. These observations reveal the existence of $HC_3N$ dense cores around central IR source, elliptical in shape and almost perpendicular to the CO bipolar outflow axis. Small differences can be explained by that $HC_3N$ molecular line is more optically thin and is seen to be more detailed structure in the neighborhood of central IR sources. In S140 and Orion-KL, massive(${\sim}10\;M_{\odot}$), slowly rotating dense cores lie near at the central IR sources of bipolar outflows. The velocity channel maps of DR21 show that the bipolar outflow gas may have a correlation with the dense core of DR21. We analyzed intensities of the four lines to derive physical conditions in dense core from two methods, LTE and LVG. The column density of $HC_3N$, $N(HC_3N)$, between LTE and LVG calculations agree well with each other. The abundances of $HC_3N$ in each observing source have been estimated using the average values of $n(H_2)$ and $N(HC_3N)$ and assuming the size of dense core. The fractional $HC_3N$ abundances in massive dense cores of DR21, S140, and Orion-KL have a range of $(2-7){\times}10^{-10}$, while that of low mass dense core, L1551, has one order of magnitude greater value of $2{\times}10^{-9}$. This should be considered good agreement with the result by Morris et al.(1976). It may be considered that dense cores of DR21, S140, and Orion-KL may have almost same stage of chemical evolution, and their abundances have a small values relative to that of L1551. The column density $N(HC_3N)$ decreases with increasing distance from the densest part of the cloud, the central infrared source, and have the relation of $N(HC_3N){\varpropto}R^{\alpha}$, where a has a range of 0.65 to 0.89. The values of $n(H_2)$ are not varied with increasing distance from the dense core, and have almost same values. Therefore, it is considered that the dense cores in these regions probably consist of dense clumps in diffuse molecular gas medium, and $n(H_2)$ of each clump is ${\sim}10^5\;cm^{-3}$. Levels in the $T_{ex}$ increases with $n(H_2)$. It is considered that the $HC_3N$ dense cores are not completely thermalized. We examine the relationships between the luminosity of central infrared sources versus mass of the dense cores, and the luminosity of central infrared sources versus molecular hydrogen column density. Luminosities of the central IR sources show good correlation with mass and hydrogen column density of the dense core. Same has been found from CS observations. However, mass and size derived from $HC_3N$ observations are one order of magnitude smaller than those from CS. It can be interpreted that we see more central part of the cloud cores in $NC_3N$ lines than CS lines.

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Channel Model and Wireless Link Performance Analysis for Short-Range Wireless Communication Applications in the Terahertz Frequency (테라헤르츠 대역 주파수에서 근거리 무선 통신 응용을 위한 채널 모델 및 무선 링크 성능 분석)

  • Chung, Tae-Jin
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.868-882
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    • 2009
  • In this paper, channel model and wireless link performance analysis for the short-range wireless communication system applications in the terahertz frequency which is currently interested in many countries will be described. In order to realize high data rates above 10 Gbps, the more wide bandwidths will be required than the currently available bandwidths of millimeter-wave frequencies, therefore, the carrier frequencies will be pushed to THz range to obtain larger bandwidths. From the THz atmospheric propagation characteristics based on ITU-R P.676-7, the available bandwidths were calculated to be 68, 48 and 45 GHz at the center frequencies of 220, 300 and 350 GHz, respectively. With these larger bandwidths, it was shown from the simulation that higher data rate above 10 Gbps can be achieved using lower order modulation schemes which have spectral efficiency of below 1. The indoor propagation delay spread characteristics were analyzed using a simplified PDP model with respect to building materials. The RMS delay spread was calculated to be 9.23 ns in a room size of $6\;m(L){\times}5\;m(W){\times}2.5\;m(H)$ for the concrete plaster with TE polarization, which is a similar result of below 10 ns from the Ray-Tracing simulation in the reference paper. The indoor wireless link performance analysis results showed that receiver sensitivity was $-56{\sim}-46\;dBm$ over bandwidth of $5{\sim}50\;GHz$ and antenna gain was calculated to be $26.6{\sim}31.6\;dBi$ at link distance of 10m under the BPSK modulation scheme. The maximum achievable data rates were estimated to be 30, 16 and 12 Gbps at the carrier frequencies of 220, 300 and 350 GHz, respectively, under the A WGN and LOS conditions, where it was assumed that the output power of the transmitter is -15 dBm and link distance of 1 m with BER of $10^{-12}$. If the output power of transmitter is increased, the more higher data rate can be achieved than the above results.

The Study on the Embedded Active Device for Ka-Band using the Component Embedding Process (부품 내장 공정을 이용한 5G용 내장형 능동소자에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Jae-Woong;Park, Se-Hoon;Ryu, Jong-In
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2021
  • In this paper, by embedding a bare-die chip-type drive amplifier into the PCB composed of ABF and FR-4, it implements an embedded active device that can be applied in 28 GHz band modules. The ABF has a dielectric constant of 3.2 and a dielectric loss of 0.016. The FR-4 where the drive amplifier is embedded has a dielectric constant of 3.5 and a dielectric loss of 0.02. The proposed embedded module is processed into two structures, and S-parameter properties are confirmed with measurements. The two process structures are an embedding structure of face-up and an embedding structure of face-down. The fabricated module is measured on a designed test board using Taconic's TLY-5A(dielectric constant : 2.17, dielectric loss : 0.0002). The PCB which embedded into the face-down expected better gain performance due to shorter interconnection-line from the RF pad of the Bear-die chip to the pattern of formed layer. But it is verified that the ground at the bottom of the bear-die chip is grounded Through via, resulting in an oscillation. On the other hand, the face-up structure has a stable gain characteristic of more than 10 dB from 25 GHz to 30 GHz, with a gain of 12.32 dB at the center frequency of 28 GHz. The output characteristics of module embedded into the face-up structure are measured using signal generator and spectrum analyzer. When the input power (Pin) of the signal generator was applied from -10 dBm to 20 dBm, the gain compression point (P1dB) of the embedded module was 20.38 dB. Ultimately, the bare-die chip used in this paper was verified through measurement that the oscillation is improved according to the grounding methods when embedding in a PCB. Thus, the module embedded into the face-up structure will be able to be properly used for communication modules in millimeter wave bands.