• Title/Summary/Keyword: NTP

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Prediction of Non-Genotoxic Carcinogenicity Based on Genetic Profiles of Short Term Exposure Assays

  • Perez, Luis Orlando;Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando;Garcia, Pilar Peral
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.289-300
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    • 2016
  • Non-genotoxic carcinogens are substances that induce tumorigenesis by non-mutagenic mechanisms and long term rodent bioassays are required to identify them. Recent studies have shown that transcription profiling can be applied to develop early identifiers for long term phenotypes. In this study, we used rat liver expression profiles from the NTP (National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, USA) DrugMatrix Database to construct a gene classifier that can distinguish between non-genotoxic carcinogens and other chemicals. The model was based on short term exposure assays (3 days) and the training was limited to oxidative stressors, peroxisome proliferators and hormone modulators. Validation of the predictor was performed on independent toxicogenomic data (TG-GATEs, Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System, Osaka, Japan). To build our model we performed Random Forests together with a recursive elimination algorithm (VarSelRF). Gene set enrichment analysis was employed for functional interpretation. A total of 770 microarrays comprising 96 different compounds were analyzed and a predictor of 54 genes was built. Prediction accuracy was 0.85 in the training set, 0.87 in the test set and increased with increasing concentration in the validation set: 0.6 at low dose, 0.7 at medium doses and 0.81 at high doses. Pathway analysis revealed gene prominence of cellular respiration, energy production and lipoprotein metabolism. The biggest target of toxicogenomics is accurately predict the toxicity of unknown drugs. In this analysis, we presented a classifier that can predict non-genotoxic carcinogenicity by using short term exposure assays. In this approach, dose level is critical when evaluating chemicals at early time points.

Biological, Physical and Cytological Properties of Pepper mottle virus-SNU1 and Its RT-PCR Detection

  • Han, Jung-Heon;Choi, Hong-Soo;Kim, Dong-Hwan;Lee, Hung-Rul;Kim, Byung-Dong
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.155-160
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    • 2006
  • A strain of Pepper mottle virus (PepMov) was isolated from chili pepper plants in Korea. In host range study, this virus, designated PepMoV-SNU1, shared most characteristics with PepMoV isolates reported previously. Thermal inactivation point ($45^{\circ}C\;to\;75^{\circ}C$) and dilution end point ($10^{-1}\;to\;10^{-4}$) of PepMoV-SNU1 showed differences depending on the propagation hosts. Cylindrical and pinwheel-shaped inclusions were always observed in pepper leaf tissues infected with the virus alone. Unexpectedly, a special structure of pinwheel shaped inclusion surrounded with unknown small spots was also observed in the leaf section when co-infected with a strain of pepper mild mottle virus. The partial sequence of coat protein gene and 3' untranslated region of PepMoV-SNU1 showed 98% identity with those of other PepMoV isolates. A primer pair derived from 3' end of the coat protein gene and poly A tail regions were designed. Optimal detection condition of PepMoV-SNU1 by RT-PCR was tested to determine appropriate annealing temperature and additional volumes of oligo-dT (18-mer), dNTP, and Taq polymerase. Under the optimized condition, an expected 500 Up PCR-product was detected in pepper leaves infected with PepMoV-SNU1 but not in healthy plants.

Nanoscale Pattern Formation of Li2CO3 for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Material by Pattern Transfer Printing (패턴전사 프린팅을 활용한 리튬이온 배터리 양극 기초소재 Li2CO3의 나노스케일 패턴화 방법)

  • Kang, Young Lim;Park, Tae Wan;Park, Eun-Soo;Lee, Junghoon;Wang, Jei-Pil;Park, Woon Ik
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.83-89
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    • 2020
  • For the past few decades, as part of efforts to protect the environment where fossil fuels, which have been a key energy resource for mankind, are becoming increasingly depleted and pollution due to industrial development, ecofriendly secondary batteries, hydrogen generating energy devices, energy storage systems, and many other new energy technologies are being developed. Among them, the lithium-ion battery (LIB) is considered to be a next-generation energy device suitable for application as a large-capacity battery and capable of industrial application due to its high energy density and long lifespan. However, considering the growing battery market such as eco-friendly electric vehicles and drones, it is expected that a large amount of battery waste will spill out from some point due to the end of life. In order to prepare for this situation, development of a process for recovering lithium and various valuable metals from waste batteries is required, and at the same time, a plan to recycle them is socially required. In this study, we introduce a nanoscale pattern transfer printing (NTP) process of Li2CO3, a representative anode material for lithium ion batteries, one of the strategic materials for recycling waste batteries. First, Li2CO3 powder was formed by pressing in a vacuum, and a 3-inch sputter target for very pure Li2CO3 thin film deposition was successfully produced through high-temperature sintering. The target was mounted on a sputtering device, and a well-ordered Li2CO3 line pattern with a width of 250 nm was successfully obtained on the Si substrate using the NTP process. In addition, based on the nTP method, the periodic Li2CO3 line patterns were formed on the surfaces of metal, glass, flexible polymer substrates, and even curved goggles. These results are expected to be applied to the thin films of various functional materials used in battery devices in the future, and is also expected to be particularly helpful in improving the performance of lithium-ion battery devices on various substrates.

Development of Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) for Detection of Vibrio alginolyticus (Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)법을 이용한 Vibrio alginolyticus의 신속 진단법 개발)

  • Hong, Seung-hyun;Heo, Moon-Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.8
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    • pp.903-909
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    • 2015
  • Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), a PCR-based diagnostic method, is based on autocycling strand displacement DNA synthesis in the presence of exonuclease-negative Bst DNA polymerase under isothermal conditions. With the help of four specific primers that recognize six different sequences of a target DNA, LAMP has high specificity in pathogenic identification in a short time. Hence, in the present study, LAMP is used as a diagnostic tool in the identification of the most dreadful aquatic pathogenic species, Vibrio alginolyticus, and to develop species-specific LAMP primers and optimization of LAMP reaction conditions such as annealing temperature, elongation time, and other PCR chemical concentrations, including MgSO4, dNTPs, Betaine, and Bst polymerase. The optimized LAMP primers were also checked for specificity with other Vibrio species, which showed that the designed primers were very specific to V. alginolyticus After the first introduction of a species name like this one, the first part (“Vibrio” in this case) should be abbreviated to only the first letter.only. These are usually the most harmful pathogens of the Vibrio species that appear in shrimp and crabs. The results also revealed that the LAMP assay could be 10-fold more sensitive than conventional PCR in detecting V. alginolyticus. This could be the first report on using a rapid and highly sensitive technique, the LAMP assay, in the effective diagnosis of the pathogenic bacteria V. alginolyticus, which could help in the early detection of diseases, particularly in aquaculture.

RAPD Analysis for Genetic Diversity of Melon Species (참외와 멜론의 유전적 다양성에 대한 RAPD 분석)

  • Mo, Suk-Youn;Im, Sung-Hee;Go, Gwan-DaI;Ann, Chong-Mun;Kim, Doo Hwan
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.21-24
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    • 1998
  • RAPD markers were analyzed in order to detect the genetic variation and diversity of the fifty-two melon lines. SDS extraction method produced more and purer DNA than CTAB method. RAPD reaction conditions were optimized as follows ; 10ng template DNA, 270nM primer, $200{\mu}M$ each of dATP, dCTP, dGTP and dTTP, $0.3{\mu}unit$ dynazyme and 10x buffer brought to $15{\mu}l$ final volume with distilled water. The adequate annealing temperature was $39^{\circ}C$ and forty cycles of amplification produced the best RAPD band patterns. Among a total of 123 bands from 12 random primers, 25 polymorphic bands(20%) were selected as reliable markers. The average number of polymorphic bands per primer was 2.1 among the 52 lines. Intragroup genetic relationship based on the marker difference was closer than intergroup genetic relationship. The 52 lines could be grouped into two major group (Korean landraces and melon lines) and then melon group subdivided into two subgroups (net melon lines and no-net melon). This result corresponded to morphological grouping. Eight RAPD markers separated the Korean landraces and melon groups and four RAPD markers separated net melon and no-net melon groups.

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Drug Resistance of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Korea (한국인 결핵환자로 부터 톨리된 인형결핵균의 약제내성)

  • Kim, Sang-Jae;Hong, Young-Pyo;Han, Yong-Chul;Kim, Sung-Jin
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.99-107
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    • 1991
  • Drug resistance of M. tuberculosis has been investigated with isolates from patients screened out of the sample population of the nationwide tuberculosis prevalence surveys or from the routine cultures. The results showed a close inverse relationship between prevalence of drug resistance and efficiency of the past or current treatment regimens of NTP. Individual drug resistance also showed a close relationship with the extent of use of the relevant drugs. Drug resistance was found in 38.0% of M. tuberculosis isolates from patients found in 1965 survey and remained unchanged until it increased upto 48.0% in 1980 survey. The resistance prevalence, however, dropped to 30.8% in 1985 and further to 25.3% in 1990 survey. Such decrease was fairly well coincided with a continuous increase of the treatment efficiency (from 60% in 1984 to 77% in 1989) in 1980s. Initial drug resistance also showed a similar trend, namely 26.2% in 1965, 23.9% in 1970, 20.1% in 1975, 30.6% in 1980, 17.4% in 1985, and 15.0% in 1990. The similar figures were observed in M. tuberculosis isolates from patients diagnosed in the routine services. Higher prevalence of initial drug resistance was observed among urban patients than rural patients and among young patients than old patients. These findings signify that a continuous survey on drug resistance permits to monitor efficiency of treatment programme of the country.

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Optimization of the Concentrations of ERIC-PCR Components to Simultaneously Differentiate Five Foodborne Pathogenic Bacterial Genera (식중독세균 5속의 동시 동정을 위한 ERIC-PCR 반응성분 농도의 최적화)

  • Seo, Hyun-Ah;Park, Sung-Hee;Kim, Keun-Sung
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.229-236
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    • 2003
  • The five different foodborne pathogenic bacterial genera of Escherichi, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio and Listeria are important sources of foodpoison. However, the method was not developed to simultaneously differentiate these five bacteria at molecular level. The optimized concentrations of the four major PCR cocktail components of $MgCl_2$, dNTPs, primers and template DNA were determined when ERIC (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus)-PCR reactions were carried out to differentiate the five differnet foodborne pathogenic bacteria. The optimized concentration of $MgCl_2$ was determined to be 2 mM in order to obtain a consistent fingerprinitng pattern. The similar fingerprinting pattern was obtained when ERIC primers and dNTPs were added up to the concentrations of 2 ${\mu}M$ and 200 ${\mu}M$, respectively. As for template DNA, the numbers of PCR fragments were not affected, but their intensities were increased as the concentrations of the DNA were increased.

Clinical Observational study of Pulmonary Tuberculosis for admitted patients at a National Tuberculosis Hospital - Comparison with the previous results in 1995 - (일개 국립결핵병원에 입원치료를 받은 폐결핵환자의 임상양태에 관한 연구 - 1995년과 2002년 비교연구 -)

  • Park, Seung-Kyu;Lee, In-Hee;Kim, Byoung-Ju
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.392-398
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    • 2005
  • Background : The last national tuberculosis survey was carried out in 1995. In 2000, the KTBS(Korean Tuberculosis Surveillance System) replaced a previous national survey. However, the KTBS does not show some of the important epidemiological indexes such as the prevalence of positive tuberculosis or the drug resistance rate. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical features of pulmonary tuberculosis patients admitted to a national tuberculosis hospital in 1995 and 2002. From this study, the authors expect to estimate the trend of the clinical features of tuberculosis in Korea even though it can not represent the Korean tuberculosis situation as a whole. Method : A cross sectional analysis of the clinical features for 331 pulmonary tuberculosis in-patients admitted to the National Masan Tuberculosis Hospital as of Dec. 2002, was carried out and these results were compared with those reported in 1995. Results : In comparison with the data reported in 1995, the mean age was increased by 3.6 years ($44.1{\pm}14.6$ vs $47.7{\pm}16.4$, p<0.01). The number of past tuberculosis history and used anti-tuberculous drugs prior to admission decreased from $2.0{\pm}1.7$ and $6.1{\pm}2.3$ to $1.7{\pm}1.8$ and $4.6{\pm}3.6$(p<0.05, p<0.001), respectively. While the resistance rate for anti-tuberculous drugs was similar (81.0% vs 77.6%), the initial resistance rate(10.5% vs 21.4%) and initial MDR rate(2.4% vs 16.5%) increased significantly(p=0.012, p=0.001, respectively). In 1995, the public health communities were in charge of approximately 65% of newly diagnosed tuberculosis cases, but this reduced to 40.5% in 2002(p<0.001). Conclusion : The existing national TB program (NTP) needs to be revised and strengthened in order to cope with the unfavorably changing situation of the domestic TB problem because the number of TB patients has not decreased and the initial resistance rate has increased greatly. Furthermore, the public and private sectors should cooperate each other to control the TB problem effectively because the private sector is now managing more than half of the TB patients.

Effects of Dietary Carbohydrase Enzyme Complex and Microbial Phytase Supplementation on Productivity and Nutrient Digestibility in Growing Pigs (탄수화물 분해 복합효소제와 미생물 파이테이즈의 첨가가 육성돈의 생산성 및 영양소 소화율에 미치는 영향)

  • Shim, Y.H.;Chae, B.J.;Lee, J.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.569-576
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    • 2003
  • An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of microbial phytase (Natuphos$^{\circledR}$) supplementation, individually and in combination with carbohydrase enzyme complex (composed of enzymes targeted to SBM dietary components such as $\alpha$-galactosides and galactomannans; ENDO-POWER$^{\circledR}$) to corn-soy basis diet with low nutrient levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of growing pigs. A total of 48 crossbred weaned pigs (Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire${\times}$Duroc), 29.1$\pm$0.14 kg of initial body weight, were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments, based on weight and age, according to a Randomized Complete Block Design. There were three pens per treatment and 4 pigs per pen. The dietary treatments were 1) CON (control diet with 3,380 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy, 18.96% of crude protein, 1.10% of lysine, 0.75% of calcium and 0.35% of available phosphorus), 2) LP+NTPS (CON diet with 0.15% unit lower available P levels+0.1% phytase (500 FTU/kg; Natuphos$^{\circledR}$)), 3) LEL+ENP (CON diet with 3.0% unit lower ME and lysine levels + 0.1% carbohydrase enzyme complex (ENDO-POWER$^{\circledR}$), and 4) LPEL+ENZ (CON diet with 0.15% unit lower available P levels and 3.0% unit lower ME and lysine levels+0.1% ENDO-POWER$^{\circledR}$ and 0.1% Natuphos$^{\circledR}$ (500 FTU/kg). There was no significant difference (p〉0.05) in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) among dietary treatments during the whole experimental period (0 to 4 weeks). Apparent digestibility of gross energy was greater in LP+NTPS and LPEL+ENZ groups than in the LEL+ENP (p<0.05). Apparent digestibility of phosphorus was greater in LP+NTPS than in LEL+ENP (p<0.05). Dry matter excretion was lowest in LPEL+ENZ and phosphorus excretion was lowest in LP+NTPS (p<0.05). Overall, pigs fed on LPEL+ENZ group tended to have better nutrient digestibility (dry matter, gross energy, crude protein and phosphorus) than pigs fed on control group. All dietary enzyme treatment groups showed lower feed cost/body weight gain of pigs than control group. In conclusion, the results from the present study suggest that the simultaneous inclusion of phytase and carbohydrase enzyme complex to diets is advantageous with respect to reducing nutrient excretion of growing pigs and may contribute to increased economic return when added to corn-soy based growing pig diets.

A Simple, Sensitive, and Specific HPLC Analysis of Tissue Polyamines using FNBT Derivatization: Its Application on the Study of Polyamine Metabolism in Regenerating Rat Liver (생체의 Polyamine-분석을 위하여 FNBT-유도체를 이용하는 간편하고 특이적이며 예민한 Isocratic RP-HPLC 분석법과 재생성 흰쥐-간의 Polyamine-대사의 변동에 관한연구)

  • Choi, Sang-Hyun;Kim, Hyung-Gun;Park, Hong-Ik;Chun, Boe-Gwun
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.233-240
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    • 1988
  • A simple and selective isocratic HPLC method for the analysis of tissue polyamine contents is described and applied on the study of the changes of the hepatic polyamine contents after partial hepatectomy in male rats. The hepatic polyamines are extracted with 0.4 M perchloric acid containing 2 mM disodium EDTA, and then the extract is redissolved in 100 ul of 1 M sodium carbonate and incubated with 300 ul of FNBT-dimethylsulfoxide (1: 100) mixture. The N-2'-nitro-4'-trifluoromethylphenyl drivatives of polyamines are separated through a ERC-ODS column in an isocratic mode with an acetonitrile-water (80:20) mobile phase within 20 min. per a sample, while monitoring the effluent at 242 nm. This improved method which could detect subnanogram of each polyamines is highly specific and reproducible as evidenced by the application of it on the study of the changes of polyamine contents in the regenerating rat liver after partial hepatectomy.

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