• Title/Summary/Keyword: Optical band gap energy

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Optical characterization of doped ZnO thin films

  • Kim, Jin-Su;Jo, Seong-Hun;Seong, Tae-Yeon;Kim, Won-Mok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.426-426
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    • 2008
  • ZnO 박막과 Al이 도핑된 ZnO 다결정질 박막을 rf magnetron sputtering 방법을 이용하여 Si(100) 기판과 코닝글라스 기판에 증착하여 박막의 광학적 특성을 Spectro-scopic Ellipsometry (SE, Woollam사)와 UV-VIR-NIR Sphectrophotometry (SP, Varian사)를 사용하여 분석하였다. SE 측정은 입사각도 55도에서 75도까지 5도 간격으로 파장범위 250 - 1700 nm 에서 3 nm 간격으로 측정하였으며, SP 측정은 수직입사로 250-3000 nm 파장범위에서 1 nm 간격으로 투과도와 반사도를 측정하였다. 측정된 데이터들은 Lorentz Oscillator 모델과 Drude free electron 모델이 결합된 분산관계식을 사용하여 전산 맞춤을 하여 분석하였다. ZnO 박막의 optical band gap energy 는 3.3 eV로 측정되었으며, Al 도핑에 따른 자유전하농도가 증가에 의하여 Burstein-Moss 효과에 따르는 optical band gap energy의 증가 거동을 보였다. 또한 자유전하농도 증가에 따라 band edge 부근에서 나타나는 excitonic transition 에 기인하는 유전함수 피크의 broadening이 관찰되었으며, high frequency dielectric constant는 자유 전하농도에 관계없이 3.689${\pm}$0.05 eV 의 값을 가졌다. Drude free electron 모델을 사용하여 plasma frequency를 구하고 이로부터 얻어진 optical mobility 와 Hall mobility를 비교하여 ZnO계 다결정질 박막에서의 결정립계가 이동도에 미치는 영향을 고찰하고자 한다.

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Electrical and Optical Characteristics of IZO Thin Films Deposited in Different Oxygen Flow Rate (산소 유량에 따른 IZO 박막의 전기적 및 광학적 특성)

  • Kwon, Su-Kyeong;Lee, Kyu-Mann
    • Journal of the Semiconductor & Display Technology
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 2013
  • In this study, we have investigated the effect of the substrate temperature and oxygen flow rate on the characteristics of IZO thin films for the OLED (organic light emitting diodes) devices. For this purpose, IZO thin films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature and $300^{\circ}C$ with various $O_2$ flow rate. In order to investigate the influences of the oxygen, the flow rate of oxygen in argon mixing gas has been changed from 0.1sccm to 0.5sccm. IZO thin films deposited at room temperature show amorphous structure, whereas IZO thin films deposited at $300^{\circ}C$ show crystalline structure having an (222) preferential orientation regardless of $O_2$ flow rate. The electrical resistivity of IZO film increased with increasing flow rate of $O_2$ under Ar+$O_2$. The change of electrical resistivity with increasing flow rate of $O_2$ was mainly interpreted in terms of the charge carrier concentration rather than the charge carrier mobility. The electrical resistivity of the amorphous-IZO films deposited at R.T. was lower than that of the crystalline-IZO thin films deposited at $300^{\circ}C$. The change of electrical resistivity with increasing substrate temperature was mainly interpreted in terms of the charge carrier mobility rather than the charge carrier concentration. All the films showed the average transmittance over 85% in the visible range. The current density and the luminance of OLED devices with IZO thin films deposited at room temperature in 0.1sccm $O_2$ ambient gas are the highest amongst all other films. The optical band gap energy of IZO thin films plays a major role in OLED device performance, especially the current density and luminance.

Optical and Dielectric Properties of Reduced SrTiO3 Single Crystals

  • Kang, Bong-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.278-281
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    • 2011
  • The optical band gap energy for $SrTiO_3$ by reduction at high temperature was 3.15 eV. The reflectivity of reduced $SrTiO_3$ single crystals showed little variation, however, the reflectivity by the reduction condition had no effect. For the phonon mode at about 790 $cm^{-1}$, a blue-shift took place upon $N_2$ reduction and the decreased. However, a red-shift took place upon a $H_2-N_2$ reduction and the increased at the same phonon mode. With decreasing temperature the dielectric constant decreased rapidly. The thermal activation energies were 0.92-1.02 eV.

Effect of Film Thickness on Structural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Sol-Gel Deposited Layer-by-layer ZnO Nanoparticles

  • Shariffudin, S.S.;Salina, M.;Herman, S.H.;Rusop, M.
    • Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.102-105
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    • 2012
  • The structural, electrical, and optical properties of layer-by-layer ZnO nanoparticles deposited using sol-gel spin coating technique were studied and now presented. Thicknesses of the thin films were varied by increasing the number of deposited layers. As part of our characterization process, XRD and FE-SEM were used to characterize the structural properties, current-voltage measurements for the electrical properties, and UV-Vis spectra and photoluminescence spectra for the optical properties of the ZnO thin films. ZnO thin films with thicknesses ranging from 14.2 nm to 62.7 nm were used in this work. Film with thickness of 42.7 nm gave the lowest resistivity among all, $1.39{\times}10^{-2}{\Omega}{\cdot}cm$. Photoluminescence spectra showed two peaks which were in the UV emission centered at 380 nm, and visible emission centered at 590 nm. Optical transmittance spectra of the samples indicated that all films were transparent (>88%) in the visible-NIR range. The optical band gap energy was estimated to be 3.21~3.26 eV, with band gap increased with the thin film thickness.

Effects of Substrate Temperature on Properties of (Ga,Ge)-Codoped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering (RF 마그네트론 스퍼트링에 의한 Ga 와 Ge가 도핑된 ZnO 박막 특성의 온도효과)

  • Jung, Il-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.584-588
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    • 2011
  • The ZnO thin films doped with Ga and Ge (GZO:Ge) were prepared on glass substrate using RF sputtering system. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the films deposited in different temperatures were studied. Proportion of the element of using target was 97 wt% ZnO, 2.5 wt% Ga and 0.5 wt% Ge with 99.99% highly purity. Structural properties of the samples deposited in different temperatures with 200 w RF power were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, FE-SEM images and x-ray diffraction XRD analysis. Atomic force microscopy, AFM images were able to show the grain scales and surface roughness of each film rather clearly than SEM images. it was showed that increasing temperature have better surface smoothness by FE-SEM and AFM images. Transmittance study using UV-Vis spectrometer showed that all the samples have highly transparent in visible region (300~800 nm). In addition, it can be able to calculate bandgap energy from absorbance data obtained with transmittance. The hall resistivity, mobility, and optical band gap energy are influenced by the temperature.

Structural, Optical, and Chemical Properties of Cadmium Phosphate Glasses

  • Chung, Jae-Yeop;Kim, Jong-Hwan;Choi, Su-Yeon;Park, Hyun-Joon;Hwang, Moon-Kyung;Jeong, Yoon-Ki;Ryu, Bong-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.128-132
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    • 2015
  • In this study, we prepared cadmium phosphate glasses with various compositions, given by $xCdO-(100-x)P_2O_5$ (x = 10-55 mol%), and analyzed their Fourier transform infrared spectra, dissolution rate, thermal expansion coefficient, glass transition temperature, glass softening temperature, and optical band gap. We found that the thermal expansion coefficient and dissolution rate increased while the glass transition temperature and glass softening temperature decreased with increasing CdO content. These results suggest that CdO acts as a network modifier in binary phosphate glass and weakens its structure.

Se-loss-induced CIS Thin Films in RTA Process after Co-sputtering Using CuSe2 and InSe2 Targets

  • Kim, Nam-Hoon;Jun, Young-Kil;Cho, Geum-Bae
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.1009-1015
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    • 2014
  • Chalcopyrite $CuInSe_2$ (CIS) thin films were prepared without Se- / S-containing gas by co-sputtering using $CuSe_2$ and $InSe_2$ selenide-targets and rapid thermal annealing. The grain size increased to a maximum of 54.68 nm with a predominant (112) plane. The tetragonal distortion parameter ${\eta}$ decreased and the inter-planar spacing $d_{(112)}$ increased in the RTA-treated CIS thin films annealed at a $400^{\circ}C$, which indicates better crystal quality. The increased carrier concentration of RTA-treated p-type CIS thin films led to a decrease in resistivity due to an increase in Cu composition at annealing temperatures ${\geq}350^{\circ}C$. The optical band gap energy ($E_g$) of CIS thin films decreased to 1.127 eV in RTA-treated CIS thin films annealed at $400^{\circ}C$ due to the improved crystallinity, elevated carrier concentration and decreased In composition.

Effect of the Calcination Temperature and Li(I) Doping on Ethanol Sensing Properties in p-Type CuO Thin Films

  • Choi, Yun-Hyuk
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.29 no.12
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    • pp.764-773
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    • 2019
  • The gas response characteristic toward C2H5OH has been demonstrated in terms of copper-vacancy concentration, hole density, and microstructural factors for undoped/Li(I)-doped CuO thin films prepared by sol-gel method. For the films, both concentrations of intrinsic copper vacancies and electronic holes decrease with increasing calcination temperature from 400 to 500 to 600 ℃. Li(I) doping into CuO leads to the reduction of copper-vacancy concentration and the enhancement of hole density. The increase of calcination temperature or Li(I) doping concentration in the film increases both optical band gap energy and Cu2p binding energy, which are characterized by UV-vis-NIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The overall hole density of the film is determined by the offset effect of intrinsic and extrinsic hole densities, which depend on the calcination temperature and the Li(I) doping amount, respectively. The apparent resistance of the film is determined by the concentration of the structural defects such as copper vacancies, Li(I) dopants, and grain boundaries, as well as by the hole density. As a result, it is found that the gas response value of the film sensor is directly proportional to the apparent sensor resistance.

Effect of Oxygen and Diborane Gas Ratio on P-type Amorphous Silicon Oxide films and Its Application to Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells

  • Park, Jin-Joo;Kim, Young-Kuk;Lee, Sun-Wha;Lee, Youn-Jung;Yi, Jun-Sin;Hussain, Shahzada Qamar;Balaji, Nagarajan
    • Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.192-195
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    • 2012
  • We reported diborane ($B_2H_6$) doped wide bandgap hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide (p-type a-SiOx:H) films prepared by using silane ($SiH_4$) hydrogen ($H_2$) and nitrous oxide ($N_2O$) in a radio frequency (RF) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. We improved the $E_{opt}$ and conductivity of p-type a-SiOx:H films with various $N_2O$ and $B_2H_6$ ratios and applied those films in regards to the a-Si thin film solar cells. For the single layer p-type a-SiOx:H films, we achieved an optical band gap energy ($E_{opt}$) of 1.91 and 1.99 eV, electrical conductivity of approximately $10^{-7}$ S/cm and activation energy ($E_a$) of 0.57 to 0.52 eV with various $N_2O$ and $B_2H_6$ ratios. We applied those films for the a-Si thin film solar cell and the current-voltage characteristics are as given as: $V_{oc}$ = 853 and 842 mV, $J_{sc}$ = 13.87 and 15.13 $mA/cm^2$. FF = 0.645 and 0.656 and ${\eta}$ = 7.54 and 8.36% with $B_2H_6$ ratios of 0.5 and 1% respectively.

Properties of MgMoO4:Eu3+ Phosphor Thin Films Grown by Radio-frequency Magnetron Sputtering Subjected to Thermal Annealing Temperature (열처리 온도 변화에 따른 라디오파 마그네트론 스퍼터링으로 성장된 MgMoO4:Eu3+ 형광체 박막의 특성)

  • Cho, Shinho
    • Current Photovoltaic Research
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.25-29
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    • 2016
  • $Eu^{3+}$-activated $MgMoO_4$ phosphor thin films were grown at $400^{\circ}C$ on quartz substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputter deposition from a 15 mol% Eu-doped $MgMoO_4$ target. After the deposition, the phosphor thin films were annealed at several temperatures for 30 min in air. The influence of thermal annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of $MgMoO_4:Eu^{3+}$ phosphor thin films was investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. The transmittance, optical band gap, and intensities of the luminescence and excitation spectra of the thin films were found to depend on the thermal annealing temperature. The XRD patterns indicated that all the thin films had a monoclinic structure with a main (220) diffraction peak. The highest average transmittance of 91.3% in the wavelength range of 320~1100 nm was obtained for the phosphor thin film annealed at $800^{\circ}C$. At this annealing temperature the optical band gap energy was estimated as 4.83 eV. The emission and excitation spectra exhibited that the $MgMoO_4:Eu^{3+}$ phosphor thin films could be effectively excited by near ultraviolet (281 nm) light, and emitted the dominant 614 nm red light. The results show that increasing RTA temperature can enhance $Eu^{3+}$ emission and excitation intensity.