• Title/Summary/Keyword: PEST

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Sampling, Surveillance and Forecasting of Insect Population for Integrated Pest Management in Sericulture

  • Singh, R.N.;Maheshwari, M.;Saratchandra, B.
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.17-26
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    • 2004
  • Pest monitoring through field surveys and surveillance helps in forecasting the population build up of pest. It reduces the load of pesticides application and forms the basis of Integrated Pest Management in sericulture. Common sampling techniques for quantifying pest populations and damage caused by them are reviewed emphasizing the need for quick and simple sampling methods. Various direct and indirect sampling methods for establishing pest populations are discussed and methods have been discussed to use indirect sampling method under IPM programme in sericulture. The use of pheromone lures and traps forms one of the important ingredients of integrated pest management, which calls for integration of all available methods in a cost effective and environmental friendly manner offering consistent efficacy. Silk-worms feed on the variety of silk host plants and spin cocoons. Each silk host plant is attacked in the field by number of insect pest species. Several pests are common to mulberry, tasar, oak tasar, muga and eri host plant but pest status and seasonal abundance differs from each crop. The key pests are serious perennially occurring persistent species which cause considerable yield loss every year on large areas and require control measure. Regular occurrence of minor pest is noticed but sudden increase in its population is not known. The occasional pests are sporadic but potential causing sufficient damage. Silk losses due to attack of all the pests have not been calculated. However, information on pest biology and ecology, and control practices being practiced is available but the period of outbreak of major pests and predators on silkworms and its host plant needs to be reinvestigated. Pest and predators forecasting based on surveillance information may provide an opportunity to minimize the losses, particularly to reduce expenditure involved in pest management.

Auto-Estimation Module of GRM Model Parameters Using PEST (PEST를 이용한 GRM 모형의 매개변수 자동추정 모듈)

  • Choi, Yun Seok;Kim, Gil Ho;Kim, Kyung Tak;Noh, Seong Jin
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • 2015.05a
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    • pp.431-431
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    • 2015
  • 일반적으로 유량을 계산하는 수문모형은 강우에서부터 유출에 이르는 수문현상을 해석하는 방법에 따라 하나 이상의 매개변수가 이용된다. 이러한 수문모형의 보정은 계산된 유량과 관측 유량을 비교하고, 계산된 유량이 관측유량을 잘 재현할 수 있도록 모형의 매개변수를 반복적으로 수정하는 과정을 통해서 이루어진다. 수문모형의 매개변수는 수문학적으로 의미가 있는 값을 가지며, 매개변수를 수정하기 위해서는 대상 매개변수가 모형내에서 수문학적으로 어떠한 의미를 가지에 대한 이해가 필요하다. 또한 하나의 매개변수는 다른 매개변수와 함께 복합적으로 유량계산에 작용하므로, 다수의 매개변수를 함께 추정하여 최적 계산결과를 도출하는 과정은 일반적으로 전문성과 함께 많은 시간이 소요된다. 본 연구에서는 범용 매개변수 추정모형인 PEST와 GRM 모형을 연계하여 GRM 모형의 매개 변수를 자동으로 추정할 수 있는 모듈을 개발하였다. 개발된 모듈에서는 GRM 모형의 보정을 위한 PEST 모형의 입력파일을 자동으로 생성하고, PEST 혹은 병렬 PEST를 실행할 수 있다. 사용자는 GRM 모형의 추정대상 매개변수 선택, 관측자료 설정, 자동으로 생성된 PEST 입력파일을 확인 및 수정하며, 병렬 PEST를 실행할 경우에는 slave PEST 개수 등을 설정한다. 본 연구에서 개발된 모듈은 OpenGIS인 MapWindow GIS의 Plug-in으로 개발된 GRM(MW-GRM)에서 메뉴로 제공되며, GUI를 통해서 편리하게 활용될 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 물리적 분포형 모형인 GRM의 보정시 다수의 매개변수를 편리하게 추정할 수 있는 방안을 마련하였다. 본 연구의 결과는 강우-유출 해석 분야에서 GRM 모형이 좀 더 쉽게 활용되는 데 기여할 수 있을 것이다.

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Survey Results to Understand the Current Status of Pest Management in Farms (농가의 병해충 관리 현황 이해를 위한 설문조사 결과)

  • Kwon, D.H.
    • Journal of Practical Agriculture & Fisheries Research
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.87-97
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    • 2021
  • To investigate the current pest management status in Korea, a survey was conducted from 151 students and graduates in the Korea National College of Agriculture and Fisheries (KNCAF) by on-line. The questionnaire consists of two divisions, basic questions and pest control questions. The basic questions were including the respondent's age, academic status, cultivating crops and cultivating area. The pest control questions were including pest control methods, pesticide selection rationale, and pest forecasting methods. As a summary of basic questions, the respondents in their 20s accounted for 91.2%. Moreover, 34.5% of the respondents had over 3 hectares of cultivating area. The cultivating methods were differed by cultivating crops. As a summary of pest control questions, major control methods were using the conventional chemicals (>66%). To understand the pesticide selection rationale, farmers/respondents made their own decisions based on existing control techniques (30%) or depended on the decisions of pesticide vendors (29%). As for the pest forecasting method, it was mainly conducted by the Rural Development Administration affiliated organization (29%) and the National Crop Pest Management System (27%). Regarding the reliability of the pest diagnosis and pesticide prescription of pesticide vendors, 97% of the respondents marked above average. However, there was no choice on strong reliability. Interestingly, 79% of the respondents agreed to train experts for pest diagnosis and pesticide prescription with high necessity and, in particular, 47% of respondents were very strongly supported. These results suggest that the farmers might be need more qualified experts in pest diagnosis and pesticide prescriptions. Taken together, these survey results would provide important information to understand the current status of pest management by farmers' point of view and useful to set the direction of pest control.

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Development of Spray Calculation Algorithm Using the Pest Control Drones (농업용 방제드론의 방제면적 산출 알고리즘에 관한 연구)

  • Lim, Jin-Taek
    • Journal of Convergence for Information Technology
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    • v.10 no.10
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    • pp.135-142
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    • 2020
  • In the recent farming industry, there is a growing diffusion of drones, which are recognized as a crucial technology of the 4 th industrial revolution to cope with aging. Especially, filming and pest control using drones are representative fields that have different age groups for obtaining a national license of multicopter that is a ultra-light flying device, and can create profits after getting a license. However, pest control technology using drones has different spray effects depending on levels of operational proficiency, since this highly relies on an operator's operating skills. It is anticipated that if this issue is supplemented, the use of drones for pest control in the farming industry will diversify. For analysis of spraying characteristics of agricultural pest control drones, this study aims to formulate effective spraying hours and effective spraying intervals and suggest an algorithm, which facilitates an accurate calculation of pest control area depending on the kinds of pest control drones. This algorithm can be used in the field of pest control by improving scatterling issues caused by drone flight methods of drone pest controllers and building an optimum pest control manual in future.

Use of Generalized Linear Mixed Model for Pest Density in Repeated Measurement Data

  • Park, Heung-Sun;Cho, Ki-Jong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Statistical Society Conference
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    • 2003.05a
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 2003
  • The estimation of pest density is a prime concern of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) because the success of artificial intervention such as spraying pestcides or natural enemies depends on pest density. Also, the spatial pattern of pest population within plants or plots has been studies in various ways. In this study, we applied generalized linear mixed model to Tetranychus urticae Koch , two-spotted spider mite count in glasshouse grown roses. For this analysis, the subject-specific as well as pupulation-averaged approaches are used.

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An Integrated Approach in the Pest Management in Sericulture

  • Singh, R.N.;Saratchandra, Beera
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.141-151
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    • 2002
  • The success of sericulture industry in India is mainly attributed to the well-planned annual sericultural activity and the systematic implementation of pest preventive and control measures. The insect spectrum of silkworm and its food plants is complex and plays a major role in limiting the production of silk. Insects cause extensive damage to plant whereas predators and parasites either kill the silkworm larvae or force them to spin flimsy cocoons. Unilateral control measure against this pest is mainly based on the use of synthetic organic insecticides. Though these approaches initially paid rich dividends, the undesirable consequences soon surfaced. Insecticide induced resurgence of gall midges, leafhopper, leaf roller, secondary pest out breaks and development of pest biotypes has led to realization of Integrated Pest Management in sericulture. Various components of IPM, viz. Host plant resistance, cultural practices, biological control, chemical control and integrating them at various technological levels have been studied. Sources of host plant resistance have been identified for some of the major insect pests. High yielding mulberry variety has been propagated and their resistances towards major pests have been recorded. Cultural practices like pruning, pollarding, judicious use of nitrogen, optimum spacing and weed management have preyed to be the powerful tools in containing pests. Natural control over the pest population build- up exerted by the wide range of parasitoids, predators and pathogens has been well documented with identification of natural enemies and studies on their potential. Augmentation, through inoculation or inundative releases of parasitic arthropods, is the most direct way of increasing the numbers of these beneficials in sericulture.

Pest Surveillance by Using Internet (Internet을 활용한 병해충 발생예찰)

  • Song Yoo Han
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • 1998.10a
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    • pp.415-445
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    • 1998
  • For effective prevention of the spreading and outbreak of crop insects and disease pests, an intensive Pest surveillance system was established to predict their density changes, and distribution. After their initial establishment by either immigration or overwintering, it is necessary to anticipate how they spread out geographically and predict where/when outbreaks are possible. The two major tools, boundary layer atmospheric model (Blayer) and the geographic information system(GIS), have been being developed to facilitate the prediction of pest occurrence in recent days. We are also developing the PeMos (Pest Monitoring System) that is able to manage the pest surveillance data collected from 152 pest monitoring stations in Korea. These three system related to the pest surveillance should be integrated into an internet based comprehensive database management system to facilitate information resources systematically organized and closely linked. Considering various data types and large data size in each system, a new special information management system is suggested. The integrated system should express complex types of information, such as text, multimedia, and other scientific data under the Internet environment. This paper discussed the major three systems, GIS, Blayer, and PeMos, relevant to the crop pest surveillance, then how they can be integrated in a comprehensive system under the Internet environment.

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Tolerance: An Ideal Co-Survival Crop Breeding System of Pest and Host in Nature with Reference to Maize

  • Kim, Soon-Kwon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.59-70
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    • 2000
  • In nature, plant diseases, insects and parasites (hereafter called as "pest") must be co-survived. The most common expression of co-survival of a host crop to the pest can be tolerance. With tolerance, chemical uses can be minimized and it protects environment and sustains host productivity and the minimum pest survival. Tolerance can be applicable in all living organisms including crop plants, lifestocks and even human beings. Tolerant system controls pest about 90 to 95% (this pest control system often be called as horizontal or partial resistance), while the use of chemicals or selection of high resistance controls pest 100% (the most expression of this control system is vertical resistance or true resistance). Controlling or eliminating the pests by either chemicals or vertical resistance create new problems in nature and destroy the co-survial balance of pest and host. Controlling pests through tolerance can only permit co-survive of pests and hosts. Tolerance is durable and environmentally-friend. Crop cultivars based on tolerance system are different from those developed by genetically modified organism (GMO) system. The former stabilizes genetic balance of a pest and a host crop in nature while the latter destabilizes the genetic balance due to 100% control. For three decades, the author has implemented the tolerance system in breeding maize cultivars against various pests in both tropical and temperate environments. Parasitic weed Striga species known as the greatest biological problem in agriculture has even been controlled through this system. The final effect of the tolerance can be an integrated genetic pest management (IGPM) without any chemical uses and it makes co-survival of pests in nature.in nature.

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Life Table Studies of Leaf Roller, Diaphania pulveruleutalis (Hampson) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) - A Major Pest of Mulberry

  • Rajadurai, S.;Bhattacharya, S.;Shekhar, M.A.
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.33-36
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    • 2002
  • Mulberry leaf roller, Diaphania pulverulentalis (Hampson), is a major pest of mulberry, Morus alba. The life table construction from present investigation reveals the age specific survival $(1_{x)}$ and the age specific fecundity $(m_{x})$ of the pest. The female contributed the highest egg production $(m_{x} = 12.75)4 in the life cycle on the $27^{th}$ day and the lowest $(m_{x} = 0.8)$ on the 37$^{th}$ day of the pivotal age. The female progeny production was observed to be intensive for the first six days after the preoviposition period, beyond which it declines steadily, The fecundity of D. pulverulentalis varies between 60-140. The first female mortality within the cohort occurred 4 days after the adult emergence and mortality increased thereafter, One generation is completed in 33.08 days. The female dominated sex ratio (1: 7.18 days) was recorded.

Hybridization and Use Of Grapes as an Oviposition Substrate Improves the Adaptation of Olive Fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Artificial Rearing Conditions

  • Sohel, Ahmad;Viwat, Wornoayporn;Polychronis, Rempoulakis;Emily A., Fontenot;Ul Haq, Ihsan;Carlos, Caceres;Hannes F., Paulus;Marc J.B., Vreysen
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.198-206
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    • 2014
  • The olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) is the key pest for olive cultivation worldwide. Substantial effort has been invested in the development of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest. One of the limitations to develop SIT technology for olive fruit fly is the low ability of wild females to lay eggs in other medium than olive fruits, and their slow adaptation to oviposition in artificial substrates. In the present study, fruit grapes were used as an alternative egg collection medium to harvest eggs and young larvae from freshly colonized wild strains originating from France, Italy, Spain and Croatia. The larvae were allowed to develop into the fruits until the second instar, before they were extracted out and further reared on a standard artificial diet. Furthermore, F1 to F4 female flies were alternatively offered wax bottles to oviposit. Finally, the performance of hybrid strains created from crosses between wild and long colonised flies was assessed. The results showed that females of all 4 wild strains readily oviposited eggs in grapes and from the F2 generation onward, females from all strains were adapted to laying eggs in wax bottles. No difference was observed in eggs and pupae production among all strains tested. The findings are discussed for their implications on SIT application against olive fruit fly.