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Using Viable Eggs to Determine Oviposition Models and Life Table Analysis of Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Alydidae) (톱다리개미허리노린재의 수정란을 이용한 산란모형과 생명표분석)

  • Ahn, Jeong Joon;Choi, Kyoung San;Koh, Sang Wook
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.58 no.2
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    • pp.111-120
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    • 2019
  • Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Alydidae) is an economically important insect pest of soybean and fruit trees. We investigated the temperature effects on the adult fecundity and longevity, and determined the parameters of oviposition models and life table at different constant temperatures 15.8, 19.7, 24.0, 27.8, 32.6, 34.0, and $35.5^{\circ}C$. R. pedestris females reproduced successfully from 19.7 to $35.5^{\circ}C$ except $15.8^{\circ}C$. The longevity of R. pedestris was longest at $15.8^{\circ}C$ and it decreased with increasing temperature (76.6 days at $19.7^{\circ}C$ and 20.6 days at $35.5^{\circ}C$). The number of total eggs and viable eggs was highest at $24.0^{\circ}C$ (193.5 and 151.2). Egg hatchability was highest at $27.8^{\circ}C$ (84.0%). We compared the results of oviposition models and life table parameters using both total eggs and viable eggs. The parameter value (c: the maximum reproductive capacity) (190 eggs) of temperature dependent total fecundity model using total eggs was higher than that of the model using viable eggs. When we analyzed the life table parameter the values of net reproductive rate and mean generation time using viable eggs were lower than those using total eggs. The oviposition models and life table analysis using viable eggs will be helpful to understand the real population transition of R. pedestris in agricultural system.

Geographical Variation of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, Occurring in Taiwan (오리엔탈과실파리 유전변이 - 대만 지역 집단변이)

  • Kim, Yonggyun;Kim, Hyoil;Mollah, Md. Mahi Imam;Al Baki, Md. Abdullah
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.58 no.2
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    • pp.133-142
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    • 2019
  • This study analyzed genetic variation of the Oriental fruit fly (OFF), Bactrocera dorsalis, which is designated to be a quarantine insect pest in Korea. OFF samples endemic to Taiwan were collected at three different locations (Taipei, Taichung, and Kaohsiung) for three days from July 30 to August 1 in 2018 and assessed in their age and mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. In these places, 1,085 OFF males were collected using methyl eugenol lure while 30 males of Zeugodacus cucurbitae and one male of Bactrocera tau were collected using Cuelure. A protein diet lure attracted 6 flies including one OFF and 5 flies of Z. cucurbitae. Male heads of OFF contained pterin, which increased in contents with age from 32 to $59{\mu}g/head$. There was a local variation in pterin amounts in OFF heads, in which Kaohsiung population had lower amounts of pterin than Taipei and Taichung populations. Genetic distance among these three populations were measured by random amplified polymorphic DNA and showed that Taipei population was separated from Taichung/Kaohsiung cluster. Genetic variation was also analyzed in sequence variations in cytochrome oxidase I (CO-I) and NADH dehydrogenase I (ND-I). There was 7.8% variation in CO-I sequence (360 residues) and 6.6% variation in ND-I sequence (213 residues). These polymorphic sites are proposed to be used to develop SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers characteristic to Taiwan OFF populations.

Study on the Technological System of the Cooperative Cultivation of Paddy Rice in Korea (수도집단재배의 기술체계에 관한 연구)

  • Min-Shin Cho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.129-177
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    • 1970
  • For the purpose of establishing the systematized technical scheme of the cooperative rice cultivation which has most significant impact to improve rice productivity and the farm management, the author have studied the cultivation practices, and the variation of rice growth and yield between the cooperative rice cultivation and the individual rice cultivation at random selected 18 paddy fields. The author also have investigated through comparative method on the cultivation practices, management, organization and operation scheme of the two different rice cultivation methods at 460 paddy fields. The economic feasibility has been ana lysed and added in this report. The results obtained from this study are summarized as follows; 1. In the nursery, the average amount of fertilizer application, especially, phosphate and potassium, and the frequency of chemicals spray for the disease, insect and pest control at the cooperative rice cultivation are significantly higher than those of the individual rice cultivation. 2. The cultivation techniques of the cooperative rice farming after the transplanting can be characterized by a) the earlier transplanting of rice, b) the denser hills per unit area and the lesser number of seedlings per hill, c) the application of larger quantities of fertilizer including nitrogen, phosphate and potassium, d) more divided application of fertilizers, split doses of the nitrogen and potassium, e) the increased frequencies of the chemicals spray for the prevention of disease, insect and pest damages. 3. The rate of lodging in the cooperative rice cultivation was slightly higher than that of the individual rice cultivation, however, the losses of rice yield owing to the occurrence of rice stem borer and grass leaf roller in the cooperative rice cultivation were lower than that of the individual rice cultivation. 4. The culm length, panicle length, straw weight and grain-straw ratio are respectively higher at the cooperative rice cultivation, moreover, the higher variation of the above factors due to different localities of the paddy fields found at the individual rice cultivation. 5. The number of panicles, number of flowers per panicle and the weight of 1, 000 grains, those contributing components to the rice yield were significantly greater in the cooperative rice cultivation, however, not clear difference in the maturing rate was observed. The variation coefficient of the yield component in the cooperative cultivation showed lower than that or the individual rice cultivation. 6. The average yield of brown rice per 10 are in the cooperative rice cultivation obtained 459.0 kilograms while that of the individual rice cultivation brought 374.8 kilograms. The yield of brown rice in the cooperative rice cultivation increased 84.2 kilogram per 10 are over the individual rice cultivation. With lower variation coefficient of the brown rice yield in the cooperative rice cultivation, it can be said that uniformed higher yield could be obtained through the cooperative rice cultivation. 7. Highly significant positive correlations shown between the seeding date and the number of flowers per panicle, the chemical spray and the number of flowers per panicle, the transplanting date and the number of flowers per panicle, phosphate application and yield, potassium application and maturing rate, the split application of fertilizers and yield. Whilst the significant negative correlation was shown between the transplanting date and the maturing rate 8. The results of investigation from 480 paddy fields obtained through comparative method on the following items are identical in general with those obtained at 18 paddy fields: Application of fertilizers, chemical spray for the control of disease, insects and pests both in the nursery and the paddy field, transplanting date, transplanting density, split application of fertilizers and yield n the paddy fields. a) The number of rice varieties used in the cooperative rice cultivation were 13 varieties while the individual rice cultivation used 47 varieties. b) The cooperative rice cultivation has more successfully adopted improved cultivation techniques such as the practice of seed disinfection, adoption of recommended seeding amount, fall ploughing, application of red soil, introduction of power tillers, the rectangular-type transplanting, midsummer drainage and the periodical irrigation. 9. The following results were also obtained from the same investigation and they are: a) In the cooperative rice cultivation, the greater part of the important practices have been carried out through cooperative operation including seed disinfection, ploughing, application of red soil and compost, the control of disease, insects and pests, harvest, threshing and transportation of the products. b) The labor input to the nursery bed and water control in the cooperative rice cultivation was less than that of the individual rice cultivation while the higher rate of labor input was resulted in the red soil and compost application. 10. From the investigation on the organization and operation scheme of the cooperative rice cultivation, the following results were obtained: a) The size of cooperative rice cultivation farm was varied from. 3 ha to 7 ha and 5 ha farm. occupied 55.9 percent of the total farms. And a single cooperative farm was consisted of 10 to 20 plots of paddies. b) The educational back ground of the staff members involved in the cooperative rice cultivation was superior than that of the individual rice cultivation. c) All of the farmers who participated to the questionaires have responded that the cooperative rice cultivation could promise the increased rice yield mainly through the introduction of the improved method of fertilizer application and the effective control of diseases, insects and pests damages. And the majority of farmers were also in the opinion that preparation of the materials and labor input can be timely carried out and the labor requirement for the rice cultivation possibly be saved through the cooperative rice cultivation. d) The farmers who have expressed their wishes to continue and to make further development of the cooperative rice cultivation was 74.5 percent of total farmers participated to the questionaires. 11. From the analysis of economical feasibility on the two different methods of cultivation, the following results were obtained: a) The value of operation cost for the compost, chemical fertilizers, agricultural chemicals and labor input in the cooperative rice cultivation was respectively higher by 335 won, 199 won, 288 won and 303 won over the individual rice cultivation. However, the other production costs showed no distinct differences between the two cultivation methods. b) Although the total value of expenses for the fertilizers, agricultural chemicals, labor input and etc. in the cooperative rice cultivation were approximately doubled to the amount of the individual rice cultivation, the net income, substracted operation costs from the gross income, was obtained 24, 302 won in the cooperative rice cultivation and 20, 168 won was obtained from the individual rice cultivation. Thereby, it can be said that net income from the cooperative rice cultivation increased 4, 134 won over the individual rice cultivation. It was revealed in this study that the cooperative rice cultivation has not only contributed to increment of the farm income through higher yield but also showed as an effective means to introduce highly improved cultivation techniques to the farmers. It may also be concluded, therefore, the cooperative rice cultivation shall continuously renovate the rice production process of the farmers.

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Risk Factor Analysis for Preventing Foodborne Illness in Restaurants and the Development of Food Safety Training Materials (레스토랑 식중독 예방을 위한 위해 요소 규명 및 위생교육 매체 개발)

  • Park, Sung-Hee;Noh, Jae-Min;Chang, Hye-Ja;Kang, Young-Jae;Kwak, Tong-Kyung
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.589-600
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    • 2007
  • Recently, with the rapid expansion of the franchise restaurants, ensuring food safety has become essential for restaurant growth. Consequently, the need for food safety training and related material is in increasing demand. In this study, we identified potentially hazardous risk factors for ensuring food safety in restaurants through a food safety monitoring tool, and developed training materials for restaurant employees based on the results. The surveyed restaurants, consisting of 6 Korean restaurants and 1 Japanese restaurant were located in Seoul. Their average check was 15,500 won, ranging from 9,000 to 23,000 won. The range of their total space was 297.5 to $1322.4m^2$, and the amount of kitchen space per total area ranged from 4.4 to 30 percent. The mean score for food safety management performance was 57 out of 100 points, with a range of 51 to 73 points. For risk factor analysis, the most frequently cited sanitary violations involved the handwashing methods/handwashing facilities supplies (7.5%), receiving activities (7.5%), checking and recording of frozen/refrigerated foods temperature (0%), holding foods off the floor (0%), washing of fruits and vegetables (42%), planning and supervising facility cleaning and maintaining programs of facilities (50%), pest control (13%), and toilet equipped/cleaned (13%). Base on these results, the main points that were addressed in the hygiene training of restaurant employees included 4 principles and 8 concepts. The four principles consisted of personal hygiene, prevention of food contamination, time/temperature control, and refrigerator storage. The eight concepts included: (1) personal hygiene and cleanliness with proper handwashing, (2) approved food source and receiving management (3) refrigerator and freezer control, (4) storage management, (5) labeling, (6) prevention of food contamination, (7) cooking and reheating control, and (8) cleaning, sanitation, and plumbing control. Finally, a hygiene training manual and poster leaflets were developed as a food safety training materials for restaurants employees.

Analysis of Critical Control Points through Field Assessment of Sanitation Management Practices in Foodservice Establishments (현장실사를 통한 급식유헝별 위생관리실태 분석)

  • Kwak Tong-Kyung;Lee Kyung-Mi;Chang Hye-Ja;Kang Yong-Jae;Hong Wan-Soo;Moon Hye-Kyung
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.21 no.3 s.87
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    • pp.290-300
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    • 2005
  • Increased sanitation management of foodservice establishments is required because most of the reported foodborne-disease outbreaks were in the foodservice industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the important control points for good sanitation. In this study, we inspected twenty foodservice establishments in Seoul, Kyunggi, Kyungnam with a self-developed monitoring tool. These foodservice establishments included secondary schools, universities, and industries. Six of them had appointed as the HACCP-certified establishments from the Korea Food and Drug Administration. The inspection was conducted from June to August in 2002. The inspection tool consisted of nine dimensions and sixty-five items. The dimensions were 'personal sanitation', 'supply of raw food', 'food storage', 'handling of raw food and ready-to-eat', 'cleaning and sterilization', 'waste control', 'pest control', and 'control of establishment and equipment' The highest possible score of this inspection tool is 105 points. Statistical data analysis was completed using the SPSS Package(11.0) for descriptive analysis Kruskal-Wallis. The score for the secondary schools (83.6 points) was higher than for the others and number of in compliance item was 50.9 on average. Therefore, we concluded that the secondary schools' sanitation condition was good. The foodservice establishments acquired HACCP certification was 89.7 points, which was significantly higher than that of establishments not applying foodservices in total score. Instituting the HACCP system in a foodservice is very effective for sanitation management. Many out of the compliance observations were found in the dimensions of 'waste control', 'control of establishment and equipment', and 'supply of raw food' 'Clean condition of refrigerator' item was $65\%$ out of the compliance that was the highest percent in this study. 'Notify and observance of heating/reheating temperature' was $45\%$ out of compliance. Items which were over $30\%$ out of compliance were 'sterilization of knifes and chopping boards in cooking', 'education of workers', 'maintain refrigerator temperature blow $5^{\circ}C$', and 'countermeasure of infection workers' In the results, most of the foodservice establishments were poorly managed in temperature control and cross-contamination. The important control points revealed in this study were preventing contamination, cooking temperature compliance, management of raw food and refrigerator. Therefore foodservice establishments should pay attention to education and training about important control points. The systematic sanitation management monitoring tool developed in this study can be effectively applied for conducting self-inspection and improving the sanitary conditions of their own foodservice operations.

Studies on Biology and Control of the Mulberry Small Weevil, Baris deplanata ROELOFS (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (뽕나무애바구미의 생태 및 방제에 관한 연구)

  • 백현준;백운하
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.65-78
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    • 1976
  • The mulberry small weevil, Baris deplanata ROELOFS, has highly infested mulberry trees in Korea. As the damage caused by the mulberry small weevil in mulberry fields has been increased over the country since 1969, the authors has carried out a series of biological and controlling studies on the pest from 1971 to 1972. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The adult weevil is elongate oval in shape with black in color and the probocis is long as usual in curculionidae. The size of adult female is 3.30${\pm}$0.04mm in length, 1.47${\pm}$0.04mm in width, and the length of proboscis is 1.25${\pm}$0.014mm, while adult male is 3.28${\pm}$0.06mm in length, 1.40${\pm}$0.04mm in width, and the length of proboscis is 1.30${\pm}$0.02mm. The antenna is geniculate consisting of 12 segments. The terminal sternite of the abdomen has a pointed tip in male but not in female. 2. The egg is long oval in shape, milky white in color, 0.51${\pm}$0.05mm in length and 0.32${\pm}$0.02mm in width. 3. The mature larva is cylindrical and light yellowow in color except the head of dark brown, and legless, 3.88${\pm}$0.06mm in length, 1.40${\pm}$0.02mm width, each segment bearing many wrinkless and short setae. 4. The pupa is long oval, milky white and exarate, 3.53${\pm}$0.09 in length, 1.40${\pm}$0.03mm in width. 5. Majority of the species has one generation through a year and overwinters as adult in xylem of withered branch and come out again from late April to early May in next year. But some of the female oviposit in the same year and the offsprings overwinter as larva (0.4%) or pupa (0.1%) 6. The eggs are mostly laid under the cork layer of withered branch and the number of eggs deposited by an adult female is 73.44${\pm}$8.74, the average egg-laying period is 33.88${\pm}$6.04 days. The incubation period is 11.69${\pm}$0.39 days, the larval period 45.04${\pm}$1.63 and the pupal period 11.05${\pm}$0.49 days. The period of adult's activity is 46.7${\pm}$5.90 days. 7. The larvae feed on the cambium under the bark and adults feed on the winter bud, the latent bud, the leaf stalk and the base of newly shoot. 8. An active period of adults was observed during the period of 4 months from April to July. However, the peak of adult-density occurred in the early May (in the fields of spring-prunning) and early to middle June(in the fields of summer-prunning). 9. There is a positive correlation between the density of larvae and diameter and length of the branches. 10. The pattern of distributions of the adult of mulberry small weevil is negative binomial distribution. 11. The chalcid fly was disclosed to be a natural enemy which was parasite on the larvae of mulberry small weevil and its parasitic ratio was 11.9%. 12. Phosvel D, Malix D, Salithion EC, DDVP EC, and Phosvel EC were effective for the control of adults and Satchukoto-S EC, and Salithio EC were effective for the control of larvae.

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Monitoring of Pesticide Residues Concerned in Stream Water (전국 하천수 중 잔류우려 농약 실태조사)

  • Hwang, In-Seong;Oh, Yee-Jin;Kwon, Hye-Young;Ro, Jin-Ho;Kim, Dan-Bi;Moon, Byeong-Chul;Oh, Min-Seok;Noh, Hyun-Ho;Park, Sang-Won;Choi, Geun-Hyoung;Ryu, Song-Hee;Kim, Byung-Seok;Oh, Kyeong-Seok;Lim, Chi-Hwan;Lee, Hyo-Sub
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.173-184
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    • 2019
  • BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to investigate pesticide residues from fifty streams in Korea. Water samples were collected at two times. Thee first sampling was performed from april to may, which was the season for start of pesticide application and the second sampling event was from august to september, which was a period for spraying pesticides multiple times. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 136 pesticide residues were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and GC/ECD. As a result, eleven of the pesticide residues were detected at the first sampling. Twenty eight of the pesticide residues were detected at the second sampling. Seven pesticides were frequently detected from more than 10 water samples. Ecological risk assessment (ERA) was carried out by using residual and toxicological data. Four scenarios were applied for the ERA. Scenario 1 and 2 were performed using LC50 values and mean and maximum concentrations. Scenarios 3 and 4 were conducted by NOEC values and mean and maximum concentrations. CONCLUSION: Frequently detected pesticide residues tended to coincide with the period of preventing pathogen and pest at paddy rice. As a result of ERA, five pesticides (butachlor, carbendazim, carbofuran, chlorantranilprole, and oxadiazon) were assessed to be risks at scenario 4. However, only oxadiazon was assessed to be a risk at scenario 3 for the first sampling. Oxadiazon was not assessed to be a risk at the second sampling. It seems to be temporary phenomenon at the first sampling, because usage of herbicides such as oxadiazon increased from April to march for preventing weeds at paddy fields. However, this study suggested that five pesticides which were assessed to be risks need to be monitored continuously for the residues.