• Title/Summary/Keyword: PEST

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Ahcyl2 upregulates NBCe1-B via multiple serine residues of the PEST domain-mediated association

  • Park, Pil Whan;Ahn, Jeong Yeal;Yang, Dongki
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.433-440
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    • 2016
  • Inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate [$IP_3$] receptors binding protein released with $IP_3$ (IRBIT) was previously reported as an activator of NBCe1-B. Recent studies have characterized IRBIT homologue S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase-like 2 (AHCYL2). AHCYL2 is highly homologous to IRBIT (88%) and heteromerizes with IRBIT. The two important domains in the N-terminus of AHCYL2 are a PEST domain and a coiled-coil domain which are highly comparable to those in IRBIT. Therefore, in this study, we tried to identify the role of those domains in mouse AHCYL2 (Ahcyl2), and we succeeded in identifying PEST domain of Ahcyl2 as a regulation region for NBCe1-B activity. Site directed mutagenesis and coimmunoprecipitation assay showed that NBCe1-B binds to the N-terminal Ahcyl2-PEST domain, and its binding is determined by the phosphorylation of 4 critical serine residues (Ser151, Ser154, Ser157, and Ser160) in Ahcyl2 PEST domain. Also we revealed that 4 critical serine residues in Ahcyl2 PEST domain are indispensable for the activation of NBCe1-B using measurement of intracellular pH experiment. Thus, these results suggested that the NBCe1-B is interacted with 4 critical serine residues in Ahcyl2 PEST domain, which play an important role in intracellular pH regulation through NBCe1-B.

A Study on the Korean Rice Farmer's KAP of the Integrated Pest Management Project for Sustainable Agriculture in Korea (지속농업을 위한 벼 재배 농민의 병해충 종합관리사업에 관한 KAP 수준)

  • Kim, Sang-Nam;Cheong, Ji-Woong
    • Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.245-255
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    • 1997
  • The objectives of this study were (1) to analyze the degree of rice farmers' knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM), (2) to determine the related variables for decisions on pest control, and (3) to indicate desirable direction for IPM farmers' field training. The study was carried out through a questionnaire method and sane interviewing survey of 300 rice farmers by the IPM trainers who participated in IPM training in 1994 or 1995. The data were collected from 268 respondents to the questionnaire consisted of KAP and related variables. The major findings of the study were as follows: 1. The KAP score of the farmers concerning IPM were 71 for knowledge, 76.2 for attitude and 74 for practice on average. 2. The KAP score was higher for farmers cultivating larger land size and for those with more participation in IPM training. Also the KAP was higher for the members of the Rural Leaders Association and Future Farmers Association than any other groups. 3. The IPM farmers had strong positive attitudes towards the resistant rice varieties. However, the practical pest control rate of the IPM farmers was low for conservation of natural enemies, timely control following occurrence and plant compensation what few pest were presence in the paddy field. 4. The KAP Score on the economic threshold level and safe pesticide use was relatively low for elder farmers and for those with lower educational background. Most farmers preferred calendar spraying methods for preventive pest control to any other method of pest control. Knowledge was relatively low on pesticide and environmental contamination. 5. Decision making on pest control depends on the extension officer and rural leader's opinion. The survey method for pest occurrence by directly counting pest in the field was only 22.9% among the farmers of this study. 6. Most farmers used pesticide for preventive pest occurrence even when pest didn't occur in their field. The average number of pesticide applications per cropping season in rice field was 3.7 times, and the number of mixed pesticides per application was 4.3 kinds of pesticides. Also 6 recommendations were made in this study for improvement of IPM farmer's training.

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Analysis of Short-term Runoff Characteristics of CAT-PEST Connected Model using Different Infiltration Analysis Methods (CAT-PEST 연계 모형의 침투 해석 방법에 따른 단기 유출 특성 분석)

  • Choi, Shinwoo;Jang, Cheolhee;Kim, Hyeonjun
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.26-41
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    • 2016
  • Catchment Hydrologic Cycle Assess Tool (CAT) is a model for hydrologic cycle assessment based on physical parameters. In this study, CAT was applied for short-term runoff simulation and connected with model-independent parameter estimation (PEST) for auto-calibrating parameters. The model performance was compared with HEC-HMS, which is widely used for short-term runoff simulation. The study area is the Pangyo Watershed ($22.9km^2$), which includes the Unjung-Cheon and Geumto-Cheon tributaries of the Tan-Cheon stream. Simulation periods were selected from six rainfall events of a two-year period (2006-2007). For the runoff simulation, CAT was applied using three types of infiltration methods (excess rainfall, Green and Ampt and Horton). Sensitivity analysis was carried out to select the parameters and then CAT was optimized using PEST. The model performance of HEC-HMS and CAT-PEST for the rainfall events were within an acceptable limit with Nash Sutcliffe efficiencies (NSE) of 0.63-0.91 and 0.42-0.93, respectively. The simulation results of HEC-HMS have high accuracy in the case of rainfall events that have a sensitive relationship between initial soil moisture conditions and runoff characteristics. The results of CAT-PEST indicated the possibility of reflecting a real runoff system using various physical parameters.

Creep Deformation Behaviors of Tin Pest Resistant Solder Alloys (Tin Pest 방지 솔더합금의 크리프 특성)

  • Kim S. B.;Yu Jin;Sohn Y. C.
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.12 no.1 s.34
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 2005
  • Worldwide movement for prohibition of Pb usage drives imminent implementation of Pb-free solders in microelectronic packaging industry. Reliability information of Pb-free solders has not been completely constructed yet. One of the potential reliability concerns of Pb-free solders is allotropic transformation of Sn known as tin pest. Volume increase during the formation of tin pest could deteriorate the reliability of solder joints. It was also reported that the addition of soluble elements (i.e. Pb, Bi, and Sb) into Sn can effectively suppress the tin pest. However, the mechanical properties of the tin pest resistant alloys have not been studied in detail. In this study, lap shear creep test was conducted with Sn and Sn-0.7Cu based solder alloys doped with minor amount of Bi or Sb. Shear strain rates of the alloy were generally higher than those of Sn-3.5Ag based alloys. Rupture strains and corresponding Monkman- Grant products were largest for Sn-0.5Bi alloy and smallest for Sn-0.7Cu-0.5Sb alloy. Rupture surface Sn-0.5Bi alloy showed highly elongated $\beta$-Sn globules necked to rupture by shear stresses, while elongation of $\beta$-Sn globules of Sn-0.7Cu-0.5Sb alloy was relatively smaller.

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Integrated Pollinator-Pest Management (IPPM) Strategy as Future Apple IPM (사과 IPM 미래 전망: 화분매개자 친화형 병해충 종합관리 (IPPM) 전략)

  • Jung, Chuleui
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.60 no.1
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    • pp.145-154
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    • 2021
  • Integrated pest management system in Korean apple has significantly advanced for last few decades. However harmful effects of pesticides threats the ecosystem services of natural enemies and pollinators. Apple require cross-pollination and Insect pollination with diversity and abundance is one of the keys to profitable apple production in quantity and quality as well. Thus crop protection tools are to be administered in harmony to meet the pest suppression and protection of beneficial organisms such as natural enemies and pollinators. Adding onto the established IPM system, integrated pollinator-pest management (IPPM) concept is proposed as the future direction of apple IPM. For this, ecological enginnering of creating habitats for pollinators, landscape management and agroecosytem diversification as well as selective soft pesticide uses on time guided by pest monitoring and phenologyand targeted delivery are further proposed. Recent shift of agroecosystem from climate change and new pest outbreaks require new paradigm of pest management for sustainable agricultural production.

A Study on the Characteristic Analysis of the Pest Control Drones Using Smart Operating Mode (스마트운영모드를 활용한 방제드론 특성분석에 관한 연구)

  • Lim, Jin-Taek
    • Journal of Convergence for Information Technology
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    • v.9 no.10
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    • pp.108-113
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    • 2019
  • In relation to $4^{th}$ industrial revolution, it is required to build a smart agricultural system using the pest control drones, which are emerging fast these days as a role to support pest control work of farmers and improve aging issues in farming. However, the absence of accurate criteria on management of the pest control drones and the effect of pesticide application is leading to damage to crops by pesticides. The extreme shortage of analysis of management of the pest control drones and relevant studies, and big differences in pest control efficiency depending on the operation skills of controllers are the biggest reasons for the damage. Therefore, this paper suggests a basic study on agricultural pest control drone operation system buildup to make out working schedules and calculate the dosage of pesticide by understanding the features of the pest control drones properly based on the control using smart operating mode.

A Case Study on Improvement of Pest Control Research in Rural Development Institutions and its Implications (농업인의 병해충 방제연구 관련 의식실태 분석과 시사점)

  • Park, Bueyong;Lee, Sang-Bum;Lee, Sang-Guei;Park, Se-Keun;Jeong, In-hong;Jun, Iksu
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.609-625
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to suggest implications of pest management system for agrarian improvement institute. We analyzed the informations about the pest management by listening to opinion of farmers and researchers including Rural Development Administration (RDA) and it's affliated organization. In result, They evaluated that the agriculture development institutes very well progressed pest management researches in principle. However, some chronic bottleneck problems still existed such as pesticides resistant pests, lack of effective control methods. For designing proper direction, these problems should be considerated preferently.

A Study on Spatial and Temporal Distribution of a Pest via Generalized Linear Mixed Models (일반화선형혼합모형을 통한 해충밀도의 시공간분포 연구)

  • 박흥선;조기종
    • The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.185-196
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    • 2004
  • It is an important research area in Integrated Pest Management System to estimate the pest density within plants, because the artificial controls such as spraying pesticides or biological enemies depend on the information of pest density. This paper studies the population density distribution of two-spotted spider mite in glasshouse roses. As the data were collected repeatedly on the same subject, Subject-Specific and Population Averaged approaches are used and compared.

The Future of Chemical Pest Control

  • Pickett, John-A.;Woodcock, Christine-M.
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.304-313
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    • 1992
  • The agricultural industry is beset by continuing demands to decrease the use of pest control agents which employ toxic modes of action. Although there are real problems of pesticide resistance, and sometimes overuse or redistribution in the environment, much criticism results from a lack of appreciation of how small is the risk involved. Whatever the background reasons, research and development for pesticide alternatives, particularly within Integrated Pest Management systems, is clearly of high priority. Currently available approaches, including use of natural products and molecular biology, are often regarded with naive optimism and require critical appraisal. For the future, methods of pest control based on chemicals with non-toxic modes of action (e.g. pheromones) continue to offer promise but, for widespread use, will require their integration with biological agents and development by means of plant molecular biology.

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