• Title/Summary/Keyword: PVP

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Evaluation Physical Characteristics of Coating Materials for Forage Seed Coating by Coating Index (피복지수에 의한 목초종자 피복제의 물리적 특성 평가)

  • 이성운;허삼남;김택림
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.155-162
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    • 2004
  • Different adhesives(CF-clear, arabic gum, cethylmethyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, hydroxy propyl cellulose, methyl cellulose) and particulate matters(bentonite, kaolin, calcium carbonate, peatmoss, talcum, vermiculite, zeolite, calcium hydroxide, plaster, calcium phosphate, vermiculite + calcium carbonate, vermiculite + kaolin, vermiculite + talcum) were evaluated by coating index method. According to the weight of single coated seeds, CF-clear and polyvinyl alcohol appeared to be the best coating adhesives for red clover and tall fescue seeds. Both vermiculite and vermiculite + talc(l : 1) for red clover, and vermiculite + talc(l : 1) for tall fescue appeared to be the best particulate matter(P < 0.01). Percent friability showed excellent results for the arabic gum, CF-clear, and polyvinyl alcohol when compared to others(p < 0.01). The coating index showed high with vermiculite and vermiculite + talc(l : 1) in coating red clover seed, and talc, vermiculite, and vermiculite + talc showed good coating index in coating tall fescue seed.

Production of Vitamin $B_{12}$ by Using Protoplast Fusion between Bacillus natto and Bacillus megaterium (Bacillus natto 및 Bacillus megaterium의 원형질체 융합에 의한 Vitamin $B_{12}$의 생산)

  • Jin, Sung-Hyun;Park, Bub-Gyu;Roh, Myung-Hoon;Kim, Dong-Gyu;Ryu, Beung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.611-617
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    • 1990
  • This study was conducted to breed a high vitamin $B_{12}$ producer by the fusion of protoplasts between Bacillus natto and Bacillus megaterium. Auxotrophic mutants of Bacillus natto SH-34 ($thr^-try^-rif^r$) and Bacillus megaterium BK-13 ($arg^-ade^-lys^-str^r$) which showed high protease activity and production of vitamin $B_{12}$, respectively, were isolated for the fusion experiment. Protoplasts were induced by incubating the cells with lysis solution containing $500{\mu}/ml$ lysozyme, and the ratio of protoplast and regeneration formation were ranged from 99% and 67%, respectively. Fusion frequencies of fusants between Bacillus natto SH-34 and Bacillus megaterium BK-13 were appeared in the ranges of $1.0{\times}10^{-5}$ under the treatment of 30% PEG 6000 containing 3% PVP. The fusant, MNF-72 showed the highest product yield of $7.85{\mu}g/g-cell\;vitamin\;B_{12}$ in production medium. For the improvement of productivity, the immobilization of fusants with sodium alginate was carried out. In batch and continuous fermentation systems, the productivity were determined to be $0.58{\mu}g/ml.hr\;and\;0.80{\mu}g/ml.hr\;vitamin\;B_{12}$ under optimum condition, respectivity.

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Use of Non-Contact Type Diode Laser on Assisted Hatching of Mouse Embryos (생쥐 수정란의 보조부화술에 있어서 Non-Contact Type인 Diode Laser의 이용)

  • Kim, D.H.;Lee, M.S.;Kang, H.G.;Han, S.W.;Kim, M.K.;Park, W.I.;Lee, H.T.;Chung, K.S.;Lee, H.J.
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.185-192
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    • 1999
  • The present study was performed to investigate the efficacy and safety of laser assisted hatching (AH) on mouse embryos. Non-contact $1.48{\mu}m$ diode laser system used to create a precise hole on zona pellucida. 2-cell embryos were collected from the mice (ICR) that had the coitus vaginal plug confirmed at 48 hours after hCG injection. Collected 2-cell embryos were cultured in the HTF medium supplemented with 0.4% BSA. For experiments, embryos at 8-cell stage were used after 18-22 hours in culture. After assisted hatching, the embryos were further cultured in HTF medium containing 0.1% PVP (anti-hatching system) for 3 days. For evaluate efficiency of laser on mouse embryo hatching, the effect of AH methods (acidic tyrode, pronase and laser), the number of artificial holes (1, 2 and 3 hole) and the irradiation time of laser (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 ms) were examined. Hatching rates of laser AH group (95.2%) was significantly higher than that of control group (50.8%), but there was no differences among the laser (95.2%), acidic tyrode (100%) and pronase (98.5%) groups. Hatching rates of the number of zona pellucida opening by laser, there were no differences among the 1 hole (87.5%),2 hole (92.1%) and 3 hole (85.9%) groups. Developmental and hatching rates of embryos according to laser irradiation time were similar in the treatment groups. Therefore, these results suggest that laser AH using non-contact $1.48{\mu}m$ diode laser is a simple and accurate and effective procedure for AH. Based on these results, laser AH could be use safely for human ART program.

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Preparation and characterization of Ga-doped TiO2 nanofibers by electrospinning (전기방사를 이용한 Ga이 첨가된 나노섬유의 제작 및 특성평가)

  • Song, Chan-Geun;Kang, Won Ho;Yoon, Jong-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.274-278
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    • 2012
  • $TiO_2$ can be used optically and is applied on many areas such as gas sensor, solar cell and photocatalysis. Electrospun nanofibers have received great interest for development and utilization in some novel applications, such as chemical sensors, dye-sensitized solar cell and photo catalysis. In this study, pure $TiO_2$ and Ga-doped $TiO_2$ nanofibers synthesized by a modified electrospinning method. The Ga doped $TiO_2$ solution is prepared by mixing poly vinyl pyrrolidone, ethyl alcohol, and titanium (IV) isopropoxide. By electrospinning these sols, nanofibers were fabricated. These fibers are heat-treated at $800^{\circ}C$ in air. The prepared pure $TiO_2$ and Ga-doped $TiO_2$ nanofibers samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy.

Controll over the Au@Ag Core-shell Nanoparticle 2D Patterns via Diblock Copolymer Inverse Micelle Templates and Investigation of the Surface Plasmon Based Optical Property (이중블록공중합체 역마이셀 주형을 이용한 Au@Ag 코어-쉘 나노입자 2차원 패턴 제어 및 표면 플라즈몬 기반 광학적 특성 연구)

  • Yoon, Min Ji;Kim, Jihyeon;Jang, Yoon Hee;Lee, Ji-Eun;Chung, Kyungwha;Quan, Li Na;Kim, Dong Ha
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.57 no.5
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    • pp.618-624
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    • 2013
  • We demonstrated unique inter- and intra-plasmonic coupling effects in bimetallic Au@Ag core-shell NP arrays which are regularly or randomly arranged on self-assembled block copolymer (BCP) inverse micelle monolayers. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized Au@Ag core-shell NP arrays in regular or disordered configuration were incorporated and assembled on reconstructed PS-b-P4VP inverse micelle templates through two types of processes. The intensively enhanced LSPR coupling properties of individual and assembled Au@Ag NPs were evaluated by UV-visible spectroscopy in terms of the type of ligand stabilizer, coupling between Au and Ag, thickness of Ag shell, and type of array configuration. Finally, Au@Ag core-shell NP arrays were employed as active substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and a significantly enhanced signal enhancement was observed in accordance with the coupling intensity of Au@Ag NPs patterns.

Carbon Molecular Sieve Membranes Derived from Thermally Labile Polymer Containing Polyimide and Their Gas Separation Properties (열분해성 고분자 도입에 따른 탄소분자체막의 기체 투과 특성)

  • Young Moo Lee;Youn Kook Kim;Ji Min Lee;Ho Bum Park
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.182-190
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    • 2003
  • Carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes were prepared by the pyrolysis of polyvinylpyrrolidone containing polyimide precursors. We have prepared the polymer precursors, pyrolyzed polymer and investigated the effect of pyrolyzing polymer on the characteristics of carbon structures and gas separation properties of the CMS membranes. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed the two-step decomposition of polymer precursor. First decomposition of the pyrolyzing polymer began around $400^{\circ}C$ while carbonizing polymer showed the decomposition around $550^{\circ}C$. The gas permeabilities through the CMS membranes were enhanced by the introduction of the pyrolyzing polymer and decreased with increased final pyrolysis temperature. The CMS membrane pyrolyzed at $550^{\circ}C$. derived from precursor containing 5wt% PVP as a pyrolyzing polymer showed gas permeability for $O_2$ of 808 Barrers [$10^{-10}cm^3 (STP)cm/cm^2scmHg]$ and $O_2/N_2$ selectivity of 7.

The Interaction between Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Follicular Stimulating Hormone (FSH) on Nuclear Maturation of Mouse Oocytes by Using Their Inhibitor

  • Cha, Soo-Kyung;Kim, Tae-Hyung;Eum, Jin-Hee;Park, Kang-Hee;Park, Eun-A;Kim, Seung-Bum;Chung, Mi-Kyung;Lee, Dong-Ryul;Ko, Jung-Jae
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Embryo Transfer Conference
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    • 2002.11a
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    • pp.113-113
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    • 2002
  • The stimulatory effect of EGF and FSH on oocyte maturation have been reported in various mammalian species. And some reports presented FSH enhanced the effect of EGF on oocyte maturation. But, the interaction between EGF and FSH on nuclear maturation of mammalian oocytes is not fully understood. We observed the effect of EGF and FSH on nuclear maturation during in vitro maturation of mouse oocytes. Also, we examined the interaction between EGF and FSH on nuclear maturation of mouse oocytes using the EGFR inhibitor or FSH inhibitor. Germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes were obtained from 3-4weeks PMSG primed BCFI hybrid mice and cultured in TCM-199 medium with 0.4%PVP supplemented with/without EGF (1ng/ml), FSH (1ug/ml), EGFR specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors: Tyrphostin AG 1478 (500nM), MAP kinase kinase inhibitor : U0126 (20uM) or PD 98059 (100uM) for 14-l5hr. Rapid staining method were used for the assessment of nuclear maturation. Nuclear maturation rates of EGF indjor FSH-treated group were significantly higher than those of control group. Treatment of EGFR inhibitor significantly block the nuclear maturation of GV oocyte in EGF-treated group, but it did not block those of GV oocyte in FSH-treated or FSH and EGF-treated group. Treatment of FSH inhibitor(U0126, PD98059) significantly block the nuclear maturation of EGF-treated group, FSH-treated and FSH and EGF-treated group. These results show that EGF has a stimulatory effect as well as different action pathway with FSH on in-vitro maturation of mouse oocyte in vitro. Therefore, further studies will be needed to find the signaling pathway of EGF associated with nuclear maturation.

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배양액이 마우스 핵이식 재구축배의 초기발생에 미치는 영향

  • 심보웅;권오용;이은화;김순희;서정선
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Embryo Transfer Conference
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    • 2002.11a
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    • pp.76-76
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    • 2002
  • 본 실험은 Piezo-미세조작기(PrimeTech Ltd., Japan)를 사용하여 마우스 핵이식 후 재구축배를 CZB와 KSOM 두가지 배양액을 사용하여 체외배양성적을 비교 검토하였다. MII의 미수정란은 성숙한 4~5주령 B6D2Fl에 hCG 주사 후 14시간째에 과적 방법을 통해 난관의 팽대부로 부터 회수하였고, metaphase II chromosome-spindle complex와 최소량의 세포질을 내경이 10$\mu\textrm{m}$인 피펫으로 흡입하여 탈핵하였다. 핵이식에 사용된 난구세포(8-l0$\mu\textrm{m}$)는 3시간동안 12% PVP 에처리 하여 piezo-미세조작기를 이용하여 세포질에 세포의 핵을 직접 미세주입 하였다. 핵이식 후 생존한 재구축배는 2시간동안 배양한 후 10mM SrC1$_2$와 5$\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$의 cytochalasin B가 첨가된 $Ca^{2+}$-free CZB에서 6시간 활성화 처리하였다, 활성화 처리 후 위전핵이 관찰된 재구축란을 CZB 와 KSOM 배지에서 배양하면서 발달률을 비교하였고, 상실배 및 배반포배로 발달한 재구축배를 day 3 대리모에 이식하였다. 표 1에서 보는 바와 같이 재구축배의 2-cell로의 발달률에 있어서 KSOM이 CZB에 비하여 유의적으로 높게 나타났으며(P<0.05), 또한 4-cell과 상실배/배반 포배로의 발달률에 있어서도 KSOM이 CZB에 비하여 유의적으로 높은 발달률을 나타내었다(P<0.01). 또한 KSOM 배지에서 배양된 상실배/배반포배를 대리모에 이식한 경우에 11.5 d.p.c에 생존한 태아가 관찰되었다. 이상의 결과로 핵이식 재구축배의 활성화 처리 후의 발생에는 KSOM 배지가 CZB 배지에 비하여 유효함을 확인 할 수 있었다.그와 같은 배양 기술을 이용하여 외래유전자를 도입한 일련의 결과에 관하여 보고 하고자한다., 이것은 세포내 유전자가 transfection되지 않은 세포도 neo selection에서 선발된다는 것을 제시하고 있다. 따라서 체세포를 이용한 형질전환동물 생산을 위해서는 세포내 유전자 도입과 선발 과정에서 나타난 colony에 대하여 보다 엄격한 screen을 하는 것이 필요한 것으로 생각된다.로 우점하였다. 여름철 식물플랑크톤 대발생에 영향은 수온과 직산염이 중요하였으나, 부유물질 크게 기여하지 못하였다.애를 확인하고 지도 관점을 파악하는 것을 포함한다. 그러나 본 논문은 역사발생적 수학 학습-지도 원리의 실제적인 적용에 관하여는 기초적인 연구에 지나지 않기 때문에, 역사발생적 원리를 학교수학에 실제적으로 적용하기 위해서는 각각의 내용에 대한 철저한 역사적 분석을 바탕으로 하는 후속 연구가 필요하다./TEX>구성교육${\lrcorner}$이 조선총독부의 관리하에서 실행되었다는 것을, 당시의 사범학교를 중심으로 한 교육조직을 기술한 문헌에 의해 규명시켰다.nd of letter design which represents -natural objects and was popular at the time of Yukjo Dynasty, and there are some documents of that period left both in Japan and Korea. "Hyojedo" in Korea is supposed to have been influenced by the letter design. Asite- is also considered to have been "Japanese Letter Jobcheso." Therefore, the purpose of this study is to look into the origin of the letter designs in t

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Addition of Macromolecules to PZM-3 Culture Medium on the Development and Hatching of In vitro Porcine Embryos

  • Kim, J.Y.;Kim, S.B.;Park, M.C.;Park, H.;Park, Y.S.;Park, H.D.;Lee, J.H.;Kim, J.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.1820-1826
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    • 2007
  • In this study, we conducted various experiments in order to develop enhanced cultural conditions for in vitro-produced porcine embryos. All embryos were produced by in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) of immature oocytes from abattoir-derived ovaries. In experiment 1, we cultured IVF embryos in 4 different groups, namely, 0% bovine serum albumin (BSA), 3% BSA, 0.05% Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and 0.5% Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) added to the basal fluid cultural medium, Porcine zygote medium 3 (PZM-3). The rates of embryo development were higher in the group where the PZM-3 media had been supplemented with 3% BSA than the other groups. While not statistically significant, the percent of blastocysts and hatched blastocytes were 6.9% and 25.0% in the 3% BSA group vs. 1.2-6.4% and 0-16.7% in the other groups, respectively. In experiment 2, we added 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) to PZM-3 on day 0 of culture and observed the development rate of blastocysts per day of culture from days 0 to 5. The development rate of blastocysts was higher at 15.6% on day 4 than on any other day, and was significantly higher than on day 0 or day 1 (p<0.05). The development rate of hatched blastocysts was 26.7% on day 4, and was higher than on any other day. In experiment 3, we cultured IVF embryos with different fluid culture media, grouped as 1) PZM-3+0.3% BSA (day0-day7); 2) PZM-3+0.3% BSA${\rightarrow}$day-4) PZM-3+10% FBS; 3) PZM-3+0.3% BSA${\rightarrow}$PZM-3+0.3% BSA+(day-4) FBS 10%; and 4) PZM-3+0.3% BSA+10% FBS (day0-day7). The development rates of blastocysts and hatched blastocysts were 21.5% and 53.1% in group 3, respectively, which was significantly higher than group 4 with respect to blastocyst development (5.2%, p<0.05) but not hatched blastocysts (14.3%). The total cell number (TCN) of blastocysts in group 3 was higher at $37.8{\pm}16.1$ than the other groups at $16.8{\pm}4.4$ - $30.1{\pm}10.9$; however, this was not significantly different. The results of this study showed that PZM-3 containing 0.3% BSA and supplemented with FBS during the later stage of culture on day 4 resulted in better TCNs and an increased rate of hatched blastocysts.

The electrical characteristics of flexible organic field effect transistors with flexible multi-stacked hybrid encapsulation

  • Seol, Yeong-Guk;Heo, Uk;Park, Ji-Su;Lee, Nae-Eung;Lee, Deok-Gyu;Kim, Yun-Je;An, Cheol-Hyeon;Jo, Hyeong-Gyun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • 2010.08a
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    • pp.176-176
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    • 2010
  • One of the critical issues for applications of flexible organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) for flexible electronic systems is the electrical stabilities of the OTFT devices, including variation of the current on/off ratio (Ion/Ioff), leakage current, threshold voltage, and hysteresis under repetitive mechanical deformation. In particular, repetitive mechanical deformation accelerates the degradation of device performance at the ambient environment. In this work, electrical stability of the pentacene organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) employing multi-stack hybrid encapsulation layers was investigated under mechanical cyclic bending. Flexible bottom-gated pentacene-based OTFTs fabricated on flexible polyimide substrate with poly-4-vinyl phenol (PVP) dielectric as a gate dielectric were encapsulated by the plasma-deposited organic layer and atomic-layer-deposited inorganic layer. For cyclic bending experiment of flexible OTFTs, the devices were cyclically bent up to 105 times with 5mm bending radius. In the most of the devices after 105 times of bending cycles, the off-current of the OTFT with no encapsulation layers was quickly increased due to increases in the conductivity of the pentacene caused by doping effects from $O_2$ and $H_2O$ in the atmosphere, which leads to decrease in the Ion/Ioff and increase in the hysteresis. With encapsulation layers, however, the electrical stabilities of the OTFTs were improved significantly. In particular, the OTFTs with multi-stack hybrid encapsulation layer showed the best electrical stabilities up to the bending cycles of $10^5$ times compared to the devices with single organic encapsulation layer. Changes in electrical properties of cyclically bent OTFTs with encapsulation layers will be discussed in detail.

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