• Title/Summary/Keyword: Substrate temperature

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Fabrication of Al-doped ZnO Thin Films by Vertical In-line DC Magnetron Sputtering

  • Heo, Gi-Seok;Kim, Tae-Won;Lee, Jong-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.41-41
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    • 2008
  • Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films have been fabricated by vertical in-line dc magnetron sputtering for transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) applications. The effects of substrate temperature and dc power on the characteristics of AZO thin films are investigated and also optimized the process conditions to get the best electrical and optical properties. The fabricated thin films show a good electrical and optical uniformity within ${\pm}5%$ over the whole area of substrate ($200mm\;{\times}\;200mm$) ; the minimum resistivity of $8\;{\times}\;10^{-4}\;{\Omega}cm$ and the average transmittance of 90% within the visible wavelength range. We have found that the band gap ($E_g$) increases with increasing substrate temperature and dc power, whereas the crystallinity is getting improved with increasing substrate temperature. The binding energy of Zn $2p_{3/2}$ and O 1s is observed to decrease as the substrate temperature increases.

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Effects of substrate temperature on the performance of $Cu_2ZnSnSe_4$ thin film solar cells fabricated by co-evaporation technique (동시진공 증발법을 이용한 $Cu_2ZnSnSe_4$ 박막 태양전지의 제조와 기판온도가 광전압 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Sung-Hun;Ahn, Se-Jin;Yun, Jae-Ho;Gwak, Ji-Hye;Kim, Dong-Hwan;Yoon, Kyung-Hoon
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.85-87
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    • 2009
  • Despite the success of $Cu(In,Ga)Se_2$ (CIGS) based PV technology now emerging in several industrial initiatives, concerns about the cost of In and Ga are often expressed. It is believed that the cost of those elements will eventually limit the cost reduction of this technology. one candidate to replace CIGS is $Cu_2ZnSnSe_4$ (CZTSe), fabricated by co-evaporation technique. Effects of substrate temperature of $Cu_2ZnSnSe_4$ absorber layer on the performance of thin films solar cells were investigated. As substrate temperature increased, the grain size of $Cu_2ZnSnSe_4$ films increased presumably. At a optimal condition of substrate temperature is $320^{\circ}C$, the solar cell shows a conversion efficiency of 1.79% with $V_{OC}$ of 0.213V, JSC of $16.91mA/cm^2$ and FF of 49.7%.

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Fabrication and Characterizations of ITO Film as a Transparent Conducting Electrode for PDP Application (PDP 투명전극의 응용을 위한 ITO 박막의 제작평가)

  • Park, Kang-Il;Lim, Dong-Gun;Kwak, Dong-Joo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.788-791
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    • 2002
  • Tin doped indium oxide(ITO) films are highly conductive and transparent in the visible region whose property leads to the applications in solar cell, liquid crystal display, thermal heater, and other sensors. This paper investigated ITO films as a transparent conducting films for application of PDP. ITO films were grown on glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering method. To achieve high transmittance and low resistivity, we examined the various film deposition such as substrate temperature, gas pressure, annealing temperature, and deposition time. We recommend the substrate temperature of $500^{\circ}C$ and post annealing of $200^{\circ}C$ in $O_2$ atmosphere for good conductivity and transmittance. From XRD examination, ITO films showed a preferred(222) orientation. As substrate temperature increased from RT to $500^{\circ}C$, the intensity of the (222) peak increased. The highest peak intensity was observed at a substrate temperature of $500^{\circ}C$. with the optimum growth conditions, ITO films showed resistivity of $1.04{\times}10^{-4}{\Omega}-cm$ and transmittance of 81.2% for a film 300nm thick in the wavelength range of the visible spectrum.

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A study on CIGS thin film characteristic with composition ratio change (조성비 변화에 의한 CIGS박막 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Chu, Soon-Nam;Park, Jung-Cheul
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.2247-2252
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    • 2012
  • In this paper, we produced CIGS thin film by co-evaporation method. During the process, substrate temperature and Ga/(In+Ga) composition ratio was altered to observe the change of resistivity and absorbance spectra measurements. As substrate temperature increased, resistivity decreased and as Ga/(In+Ga) composition ratio increased from 0.30 to 0.72, band gap also increased with the range of 1.26eV, 1.30eV, 1.43eV, 1.47eV. With the constant condition of composition ratio, resistivity decreased with increased thickness of the thin film. On this experiment, we assumed that optical absorbance ratio and optical current will be increased with CIGS thin film fabrication.

Photovoltaic Properties of Solar Cells with Deposition Temperature of Cu(InGa)Se$_2$ Films (Cu(InGa)Se$_2$ 박막의 성장온도에 따른 태양전지의 광전특성 분석)

  • 김석기;이정철;강기환;윤경훈;박이준;송진수;한상옥
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.330-333
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    • 2002
  • The substrate temperature is an important parameter in thin film deposition process. In this paper the effects of the substrate temperature on the properties of CuIn0.75Ga0.25Se2(CIGS) thin films are reported. Structure, surface morphology and optical properties of CIGS thin films deposited at various substrate temperatures have been investigated using a number of analysis techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that CIGS films exhibit a strong <112> preferred orientation. As expected, at higher substrate temperatures the films displayed a higher degree of crystallinity. The <112> peak was also enhanced and other CIGS peaks appeared simultaneously These results were supported by experimental work using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra of the as-grown CIGS thin films show only the Al mode peak. The intensity of this peak was enhanced at higher deposition temperatures. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results revealed very small grains in films fabricated at 48$0^{\circ}C$ substrate temperature. When the substrate temperature was increased the average grain size also increased together with a reduction in the number and size of the voids. The deposition temperature also had a significant influence on the transmission spectra.

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Effect of Substrate Temperature on the Emission Characteristics of ZnO Films Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition (기판 온도의 영향에 따른 펄스레이저 증착법으로 성장된 ZnO 박막의 발광 특성)

  • Kim, Y.H.;Kim, S.I.
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.358-364
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    • 2009
  • We investigated the growth of ZnO thin films with prominent emission characteristics through minimizing the formation of defects by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). To do so, the ZnO films were deposited on sapphire(0001) substrates at the substrate temperature of $400-850^{\circ}C$ and then the variation of their structural and optical properties were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope and photoluminescence. As a result, all ZnO films were grown with c-axis preferential orientation irrespective of the substrate temperature. However, the crystallinity and stress state were dependent on the substrate temperature and the ZnO film deposited at $600^{\circ}C$ showed the best surface morphology and crystallinity with nearly no strain. And also this film exhibited outstanding emission characteristics from the viewpoint of full width half maximum of UV emission peak as well as visible emission due to defects. These results indicate that the emission characteristics of the ZnO films are strongly related to their structural characteristics influenced by substrate temperature. Consequently, ZnO films with strong UV emission and nearly no visible emission, which are applicable to UV emission devices, could be grown at the substrate temperature of $600^{\circ}C$ by PLD.

Magnetic Property Evolution of Co-22%Cr Alloy Thin Films with Self-Organized Nano Structure Formation (Co-22%Cr 합금박막의 자가정렬형 나노구조에 의한 자기적 물성)

  • Song, O-Seong;Lee, Yeong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.11 no.12
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    • pp.1042-1046
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    • 2001
  • Co-22%Cr alloy films are promising for high-density perpendicular magnetic recording media with their perpendicular anisotropy and large coercivity of 3000 Oe. We observed that a self organized nano structure(SONS) of fine ferromagnetic Co-enriched phase and paramagnetic Cr-enriched phase appears inside the grain of Co-Cr magnetic alloy thin films at the elevated substrate temperature after do-sputtering. We prepared 1000 $\AA$-thick Co-22%Cr films on 2000 $\AA$- SiO$_2$/Si(100) substrates at the deposition rate of 100 $\AA$/min with substrate temperatures of 3$0^{\circ}C$, 10$0^{\circ}C$, 15$0^{\circ}C$, 20$0^{\circ}C$, 30$0^{\circ}C$, and 40$0^{\circ}C$, respectively. We employed a vibrating sample magnetometer(VSM) to measure the B-H loops showing the saturation magnetifation, coercivity, remanence in in- plane and out- of- plane modes. In- plane coercivity, perpendicular coercivity, and perpendicular remanence increased as substrate temperature increased, how-ever they decreased after 30$0^{\circ}C$ slowly. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization revealed that the self organized nano structure (SONS) appears at the elevated substrate temperature, which forms fine Co-enriched phases inside a grain, then it eventually affect the perpendicular magnetic property. Our results imply that we may tune the perpendicular magnetic properties with SONS obtained at appropriate substrate temperature.

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Variation of the surface structure of the Al / W(110) planes according to the substrate temperature and the coverage

  • Choi, Dae Sun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.156.2-156.2
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    • 2016
  • The variation of the surface structure of the Al adsorbed W(110) planes according to the coverage and the substrate temperature has been investigated using LEED and ISS When the Al atoms were adsorbed on the W(110) surface at room temperature, a p($1{\times}1$) of the fcc (111) face were found at the coverage higher than 4 ML. When the substrate temperature was kept at 900 K during Al adsorption and the coverage was 1.0 ML, the surface revealed a p($1{\times}1$) of the bcc(110) face and when the coverage is 1.5 ML, the surface showed a p($1{\times}1$) of the bcc (110) face together with a p($1{\times}1$) double domain structure (fcc (111) face) rotated ${\pm}3^{\circ}$ from the [100] direction of the W(110) surface. When Al atoms were adsorbed on the W(110) surface at the substrate temperature of 1000 K and the coverage was higher than 1.0 ML, the surface revealed a p($1{\times}1$) of the bcc(110) face together with p($1{\times}1$) double domain structure(fcc(111) face) rotated ${\pm}3^{\circ}{\sim}5^{\circ}$ from the [100] direction of the W(110) surface. When Al atoms were adsorbed on the W(110) surface at the substrate temperature of 1100 K and the coverage was 0.5 ML, Al atoms formed a p($2{\times}1$) double domain structure When the coverage was 1.0 ML, the double domain hexagonal structure (fcc(111) face) rotated ${\pm}5^{\circ}$ from the [100] direction of the W(110) surface and another distorted hexagonal structure was found. Low-energy electron diffraction results along with ion scattering spectroscopy results showed that the Al atoms followed the Volmer-Weber growth mode at high temperature.

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Structure and Electrical Properties of PbTe Thin Film According To The Substrate Temperature (기판온도에 따른 PbTe 박막의 구조 및 전기적 물성)

  • Lee, Hea-Yeon;Choi, Byung-Chun;Jeong, Jung-Hyun
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.184-188
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    • 1999
  • PbTe thin films of high quality were deposited on HF-treated Si(100) substrates at various substrate temperature by pulsed laser deposition technique. XRD patterns showed that PbTe layers were well-crystallized to a cubic phase with (h00) preferred orientation with the substrate temperature up to $300^{\circ}C$. PbTe films could not form at substrate temperature above $400^{\circ}C$ because of reevaporation of the Pb. According to AFM image, the surface of films was composed of small granular crystals and flat matrix. According to the increase of substrate temperature, the grain size at film surface becomes larger. By Hall-effect measurement, the carrier concentration and Hall mobility of n-type PbTe films grown by $T_{sub}=300^{\circ}C$ were $3.68{\times}10^{18}cm^{-3}$ and $148\;cm^2/Vs$, respectively.

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Variation in the Nanostructural Features of the nc-Si:H Thin Films with Substrate Temperature (수소화된 나노결정 실리콘 박막의 기판온도에 따른 나노구조 변화)

  • Nam, Hee-Jong;Son, Jong-Ick;Cho, Nam-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.359-365
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    • 2013
  • We investigated the nanostructural, chemical and optical properties of nc-Si:H films according to deposition conditions. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition(PECVD) techniques were used to produce nc-Si:H thin films. The hydrogen dilution ratio in the precursors, [$SiH_4/H_2$], was fixed at 0.03; the substrate temperature was varied from room temperature to $600^{\circ}C$. By raising the substrates temperature up to $400^{\circ}C$, the nanocrystalite size was increased from ~2 to ~7 nm and the Si crystal volume fraction was varied from ~9 to ~45% to reach their maximum values. In high-resolution transmission electron microscopy(HRTEM) images, Si nanocrystallites were observed and the crystallite size appeared to correspond to the crystal size values obtained by X-ray diffraction(XRD) and Raman Spectroscopy. The intensity of high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy(EELS) peaks at ~99.9 eV(Si $L_{2,3}$ edge) was sensitively varied depending on the formation of Si nanocrystallites in the films. With increasing substrate temperatures, from room temperature to $600^{\circ}C$, the optical band gap of the nc-Si:H films was decreased from 2.4 to 1.9 eV, and the relative fraction of Si-H bonds in the films was increased from 19.9 to 32.9%. The variation in the nanostructural as well as chemical features of the films with substrate temperature appears to be well related to the results of the differential scanning calorimeter measurements, in which heat-absorption started at a substrate temperature of $180^{\circ}C$ and the maximum peak was observed at ${\sim}370^{\circ}C$.