• Title/Summary/Keyword: TCO films

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Out Gassing from Plastic Substrates Affect on the Electrical Properties of TCO Films (플라스틱 기판의 Outgassing이 TCO 박막의 전기적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hwa-Min;Ji, Seung-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.22 no.11
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    • pp.961-968
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    • 2009
  • In this work, transparent conductive oxide(TCO) films such as $In_2O_3-SnO_2$(ITO) and $In_2O_3-ZnO$(IZO) were prepared on polyethylene naphthalene(PEN) and glass substrates by using rf-magnetron sputtering system. The TCO films deposited on PEN substrate show very poor conductivity as compared to that of the TCO films deposited on glass substrates. From the results of the residual gas analysis(RGA) test, this poor stability of plastic substrate is presumed to be caused by the deteriorated adhesion between the TCO films and the plastic substrate due to outgassing from the plastic substrate during deposition of TCO films. From our experiment, it is found that the vaporization of some defects in the plastic substrates deteriorate the adhesion of the TCO films to the plastic substrate, because the most plastic substrates containing the water vapor and/or other adsorbed particles such as organic solvents. Mixing of these gases vaporized in the sputtering process will also affect the electrical property of the deposited TCO films. Inorganic thin composite $(SiO_2)_{40}(ZnO)_{60}$ film as a gas barrier layer is coated on the PEN substrate to protecting the diffusion of vapors from the substrate, so that the TCO films with an improved quality can be obtained.

Rutile Ti1-xCoxO2-δ p-type Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor Thin Films

  • Seong, Nak-Jin;Yoon, Soon-Gil;Cho, Young-Hoon;Jung, Myung-Hwa
    • Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.149-153
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    • 2006
  • An attempting to produce a p-type diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) using $Ti_{1-x}Co_xO_{2-\delta}-based$ thin films was made by suitable control of the deposition parameters including deposition temperature, deposition pressure, and doping level using a pulsed laser deposition method. T$Ti_{0.97}Co_{0.03}O_{2-\delta}-based$ (TCO) films deposited at $500^{\circ}C$ at a pressure of $5\times10^{-6}$ Torr showed an anomalous Hall effect with p-type characteristics. On the other hand, films deposited at $700^{\circ}C$ at $5\times10^{-6}$ Torr showed n-type behaviors by a decreased solubility of cobalt. The charge carrier concentration in the p-type TCO films was approximately $7.9\times10^{22}/cm^3$ at 300 K and the anomalous Hall effect in the p-type TCO films was controlled by a side-jump scattering mechanism. The magnetoresistance (MR), measured at 5 K in p-type TCO films showed a positive behavior in an applied magnetic field and the MR ratio was approximately 3.5 %. The successful preparation of p-type DMS using the TCO films has the potential for use in magnetic tunneling junction devices.

Doping-free Transparent Conducting Schottky Type Heterojunction Solar Cells

  • Kim, Joon-Dong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.209-209
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    • 2012
  • High-efficient transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film-embedding Si heterojunction solar cells were fabricated. An additional doping was not applied for heterojunction solar cells due to the spontaneous junction formation between TCO films and an n-type Si substrate. Three different TCO coatings were formed by sputtering method for an Al-doped ZnO (AZO) film, an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film and double stacks of ITO/AZO films. An improved crystalline ITO film was grown on an AZO template upon hetero-epitaxial growth. This double TCO films-embedding Si heterojunction solar cell provided significantly enhanced efficiency of 9.23% as compared to the single TCO/Si devices. The effective arrangement of TCO films (ITO/AZO) provides benefits of a lower front contact resistance and a smaller band offset to Si leading enhanced photovoltaic performances. This demonstrates a potential scheme of the effective TCO film-embedding heterojunction Si solar cells.

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Laser Direct Etching on Transparent Conductive Oxide Films Sputtered on Polycarbonate Substrates (PC 기판상에 스퍼터링된 투명전도 산화막의 레이저 식각 특성)

  • Lee, Jeongmin;Kwon, Sang Jik;Cho, Eou Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.146-150
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    • 2014
  • As a method of simple patterning of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films deposited on flexible substrates, laser direct etching was carried out on TCO films sputtered on polycarbonate (PC) substrates. As a result of different binding energies in TCO films, indium tin oxide (ITO) and indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) were more easily etched than zinc oxide with different $Nd:YVO_4$ laser beam conditions.

Current Status of Low-temperature TCO Electrode for Solar-cell Application: A Short Review (고효율 태양전지 적용을 위한 저온 투명전극 소재 연구현황 리뷰)

  • Park, Hyeongsik;Kim, Youngkuk;Oh, Donghyun;Pham, Duy Phong;Song, Jaechun;Yi, Junsin
    • New & Renewable Energy
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2021
  • Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films have been widely used in optoelectronic devices, such as OLEDs, TFTs, and solar cells. However, thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) have few disadvantages pertaining to process parameters such as substrate temperature and sputtering power. In this study, we investigated the requirements for using TCO films in silicon-based solar cells and the best alternative TCO materials to improve their efficiency. Moreover, we discussed the current status of high-efficiency solar cells using low-temperature TCO films such as indium zinc oxide and Zr-doped indium oxide.

Fabrication of Ti Doped ZnO Nanostructures by Atomic Layer Deposition and Block Copolymer Templates

  • Kwack, Won-Sub;Zhixin, Wan;Choi, Hyun-Jin;Jang, Seung-Il;Lee, Woo-Jae;Kwon, Se-Hun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.452-452
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    • 2013
  • ZnO is one of the most attractive transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films because of low toxicity, a wide band gap material and relatively low cost. However, the electrical conductivity of un-doped ZnO is too high to use it as TCO films in practical application. To improve electrical properties of undoped ZnO, transition metal (TM) doped ZnO films such as Al doped ZnO or Ti doped ZnO have been extensively studied. Here, we prepared Ti doped ZnO thin films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) for the application of TCO films. ALD was used to prepare Ti-doped ZnO thin films due to its inherent merits such as large area uniformity, precise composition control in multicomponent thin films, and digital thickness controllability. Also, we demonstrated that ALD method can be utilized for fabricating highly ordered freestanding nanostructures of Ti-doped ZnO thin films by combining with BCP templates, which can potentially used in the photovoltaic applications.

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Enhanced Efficiency of Transmit and Receive Module with Ga Doped MgZnO Semiconductor Device by Growth Thickness

  • Shim, Bo-Hyun;Jo, Hee-Jin;Kim, Dong-Jin;Chae, Jong-Mok
    • JSTS:Journal of Semiconductor Technology and Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.39-43
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    • 2016
  • The structural, electrical properties of Ga doped MgZnO transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films by ratio-frequency(RF) magnetron sputtering were investigated. Ga doped MgZnO TCO films were deposited on the sapphire substrates at $200^{\circ}C$ varying growth thickness 200 to 600 nm. The optical properties of Ga doped MgZnO TCO films were showed above 85% transmittance from 300 to 1000 nm region. In addition, the current density ($J_{SC}$) of $Cu(In,Ga)Se_2$ (CIGS) solar cells was improved by using the MgZnO:Ga films of 500 nm thickness because of outstanding electrical properties. The $Cu(In,Ga)Se_2$ solar cells with MgZnO:Ga transparent conducing layer yielded an efficiency of 9.8% with current density ($31.8mA/cm^2$), open circuit voltage (540.2 V) and fill factor (62.2) under AM 1.5 illumination.

Study of SF6/Ar plasma based textured glass surface morphology for high haze ratio of ITO films in thin film solar cell

  • Kang, Junyoung;Hussain, Shahzada Qamar;Kim, Sunbo;Park, Hyeongsik;Le, Anh Huy Tuan;Yi, Junsin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.430.2-430.2
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    • 2016
  • The front transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films in thin fill solar cell should exhibit high transparency, conductivity, good surface morphology and excellent light scattering properties. The light trapping phenomenon is limited due to random surface structure of TCO films. The proper control of surface structure and uniform cauliflower TCO films may be appropriate for efficient light trapping. We report light trapping scheme of ICP-RIE glass texturing by SF6/Ar plasma for high roughness and haze ratio of ITO films. It was observed that the variation of etching time, pattern size and Ar flow ratio during ICP-RIE process were important factors to improve the diffused transmittance and haze ratio of textured glass. The ICP-RIE textured glass showed low etching rates due to the presence of metal elements like Al, B, F and Na. The ITO films deposited on textured glass substrates showed the high RMS roughness and haze ratio in the visible wavelength region. The change in surface morphology showed negligible influence on electrical and structural properties of ITO films. The ITO films with high roughness and haze ratio can be used to improve the performance of thin film solar cells.

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Effect of process parameters of antimony doped tin oxide films prepared on flexible substrate at room temperature

  • Lee, Seong-Uk;Hong, Byeong-Yu
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.175-175
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    • 2010
  • Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films are widely used as transparent conducting thin film material for application in various fields such as solar cells, optoelectronic devices, heat mirrors and gas sensors, etc. Recently the increased utilization of many transparent electrodes has accelerated the development of inexpensive TCO materials. Indium tin oxide (ITO) film is well-known for TCO materials because of its low resistivity, but there is disadvantage that it is too expensive. ZnO film is cheaper than ITO but it shows thermally poor stability. On the contrary, antimony-doped tin oxide films (ATO) are more stable than TCO films such as Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) and ITO. Moreover, SnO2 film shows the best thermal and chemical stability, low cost and mechanical durability except the poor conductivity. However, annealing is proved to improve the conductivity of ATO film. Therefore, in this work, antimony (6 wt%) doped tin oxide films to improve the conductivity were deposited on 7059 corning glass by RF magnetron sputtering method for the application to transparent electrodes. In general, of all TCO films, glass is the most commonly selected substrate. However, for future development in flexible devices, glass is limited by its intrinsic inflexibility. In this study, we report the growth and properties of antimony doped tin oxide (ATO) films deposited on PES flexible substrate by using RF magnetron sputtering. The optimization process was performed varying the sputtering parameters, such as RF power and working pressure, and parameter effect on the structural, electrical and optical properties of the ATO films were investigated.

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Improved Electrical and Optical Properties of ITO Films by Using Electron Beam Irradiated Sputter

  • Wie, Sung Min;Kwak, Joon Seop
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.407-408
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    • 2013
  • Thin transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) having a thickness lower than 30 nm have been widely usedin touch screen panels. However the resistivity of the TCO films significantly increases as the thickness decreases, due to the poor crystallinity at very thin thickness of TCO films. In this study, we have investigated the effect of electron beam irradiation during the sputtering on the electrical properties and transmittance of 30 nm-thick ITO films, which have a different SnO2 atomic percent, prepared by magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Fig. 1 shows the variation of resistivity of ITO films with a different SnO2 atomic percent for both the normal ITO films and electron beam irradiated ITO films. As shows in Fig. 1, the electron beam irradiation to the ITO (SnO2 weight percent 10%) films during the sputtering resulted in a significantly decreased in resistivity from $7.4{\times}10^{-4}{\Omega}-cm$ to $1.5{\times}10^{-4}{\Omega}-cm$ and it also increased in transmittance from 84% to 88% at a wavelength of 550 nm. These results can be attributed to energy transfer from electron to ad-atoms of ITO films during the electron beam irradiated sputtering, which can enhance the crystallinity of 30 nm-thick ITO films. It is strongly indicate that electron beam irradiation can greatly improve the electrical properties and transmittance of very thin ITO films for touch screen panels, flexible displays and solar cells.

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