• Title/Summary/Keyword: Wireless Sensor Networks

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Fair Queuing for Mobile Sink (FQMS) : Scheduling Scheme for Fair Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sink (모바일 싱크를 위한 균등 큐잉(FQMS) : 모바일 싱크 기반 무선 센서 네트워크에서 균등한 데이터 수집을 위한 스케줄링 기법)

  • Jo, Young-Tae;Park, Chong-Myung;Lee, Joa-Hyoung;Seo, Dong-Mahn;Lim, Dong-Sun;Jung, In-Bum
    • Journal of KIISE:Information Networking
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.204-216
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    • 2010
  • Since Sensor nodes around a fixed sink have huge concentrated network traffic, the battery consumption of them is increased extremely. Therefore the lifetime of sensor networks is limited because of huge battery consumption. To address this problem, a mobile sink has been studied for load distribution among sensor nodes. Since a mobile sink changes its location in sensor networks continuously, the mobile sink has time limits to communicate with each sensor node and unstable signal strength from each sensor node. Therefore, a fair and stable data collection method between a mobile sink and sensor nodes is necessary in this environment. When some sensor nodes are not able to send data to the mobile sink, a real-time application in sensor networks cannot be provided. In this paper, the new scheduling method, FQMS (Fair Queuing for Mobile Sink), is proposed for fair and stable data collection for mobile sinks in sensor networks. The FQMS guarantees balanced data collecting between sensor nodes for a mobile sink. In out experiments, the FQMS receives more packets from sensor nodes than legacy scheduling methods and provides fair data collection, because moving speed of a mobile sink, distance between a mobile sink and sensor nodes and the number of sensor nodes are considered.

A Localization Method Using RF Transmission Levels in Wireless Sensor Networks (무선 센서 네트워크에서 RF 전송 레벨을 이용한 위치 측정 기법)

  • Yun, Chae-Sang;Hahn, Joo-Sun;Ha, Rhan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • 2007.10d
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    • pp.366-371
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    • 2007
  • 무선 센서 네트워크는 경제적, 환경적 목적으로 다양한 방면에서 활용되고 있다 이 때, 배치된 각 센서의 위치를 파악하는 것은 센서 네트워크에서 가장 기본적이며 가장 중요한 문제 중의 하나이다. 기존 논문에서 제안된 센서 위치 측정 방법은 특별한 장비를 장착하거나 특정한 환경의 지역에 한정시킨 방범으로 제한하고 있는 경우가 대부분이다. 하지만 어떠한 관심 지역의 환경은 언제라도 바뀔 수 있다. 또한, 센서가 위치할 환경의 기온, 풍속 등을 미리 안다는 것은 비현실적인 가정이다. 더구나 각각의 센서에 특별한 장비를 장착한다는 것은 비용 절감을 이유로 센서 네트워크를 운영하는 경우 오히려 그것을 이용하지 않는 경우보다 비용이 더 들 수도 있다. 이에 본 논문에서는 센서 노드의 기본적인 통신 기능은 이용하여, 환경에 순응적으로 센서의 위치를 측정할 수 있는 방법을 제안하고자 한다. 센서 노드에서 기본적으로 제공하는 통신 기능은 RF 전파를 보낼 때 전송 레벨을 달리하여 보낼 수 있다. 이러한 기본적인 기능을 이용하여 위치를 측정하게 되면 전체적인 센서 네트워크의 비용이 절감될 뿐만 아니라 환경에 순응적인 위치 측정이 가능하게 된다. 또한, 각 노드의 위치가 정해진 후 다른 노드와 통신할 때 전파의 세기를 조정함으로써 RF 통신에서 소모되는 전력량을 줄일 수 있다. 따라서 본 논문에서 제안하는 전송 레벨을 이용한 위치 측정 방법은 단순히 위치를 측정한다는 의미뿐 아니라 환경에 순응적으로 작동한다는 장점이 있다. 향후 네트워크 내에서 통신에 소비되는 전력을 줄일 수 있다는 점에서도 중요한 의미를 지닌다.를 집행하는 caspase의 활성 형태인 cleaved caspase-8, -9, -7, -3의 단백질 수준이 목향 헥산추출물의 처리에 의해 증가하였고 caspase-3의 표적 단백질 중 하나인 PARP의 불활성 형태인 cleaved PARP의 단백질 수준도 현저하게 증가하였다. 이 결과들은 목향 헥산 추출물이 LNCaP 세포의 apoptosis를 유도함으로써 전립선 암세포의 증식을 억제함을 보여주는 것이며 목향 헥산추출물에 의한 apoptosis 유도는 caspase 활성 증가와 Bak 및 t-Bid 단백질의 증가에 의한 것임을 제시한다. 따라서 앞으로 항암효과를 나타내는 성분의 동정 및 동물실험을 통하여 좀 더 면밀한 기전 연구가 수행된다면 목향 헥산추출물은 화학적 암예방 물질이나 치료제로 개발될 수 있을 것으로 사료된다.적 분해층과 마모질이가 가장 깊은 것으로 나타났으며 flowable type의 복합레진과 컴포머는 표면 경도와 마모도에서 양호한 결과를 보였다. 이상의 결과 복합레진과 컴포머의 평가요소로서 마모도와 함께 가수분해도 고려되어야 할 것으로 사료된다.증후군 환자에서 대조군에 비해 높은 비율을 보였다.er thinning은 3 군모두에서 관찰되었고 항암 3 일군이 가장 심하게 나타났다. 이상의 실험결과를 보면 술전 항암제투여가 초기에 시행한 경우에는 조직의 치유에 초기 5 일정도까지는 영향을 미치나 7 일이 지나면 정상범주로 회복함을 알수 있었고 실험결과 항암제 투여후 3 일째 피판 형성한 군에서 피판치유가 늦어진 것으로 관찰되어 인체에서 항암 투여후 수술시기는 인체면역계가 회복하는 시기를 3

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Availability based Scheduling Scheme for Fair Data Collection with Mobile Sink in Wireless Sensor Networks (무선 센서 네트워크에서 모바일 싱크를 통한 데이터 수집의 균등성 보장을 위한 가용성 기반 스케줄링 기법)

  • Lee, Joa-Hyoung;Jo, Young-Tae;Jung, In-Bum
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartA
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    • v.16A no.3
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    • pp.169-180
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    • 2009
  • With fixed sinks, the network stability could be improved while the network life time could be decreased by the rapid energy dissipation around the fixed sink because of the concentrated network traffic from sensor nodes to the fixed sink in wireless sensor network. To address this problem, mobile sinks, which decentralize the network traffic, has received a lot of attention from many researchers recently. Since a mobile sink has a limited period to communicate with each sensor nodes, it is necessary for a scheduling algorithm to provide the fairness of data collection from each sensor nodes. In the paper, we propose the new scheduling algorithm, ASF(Availability based Scheduling scheme for Fair data collection), for the fair data collection by a mobile in the sensor networks. The ASF takes account of the distance between each sensor nodes and the mobile sink as scheduling metric, as well as the amount of collected data from each sensor nodes. Experiment results shows that the ASF improves the fairness of data collection among the sensor nodes, comparing to existing algorithm.

A 2MC-based Framework for Sensor Data Loss Decrease in Wireless Sensor Network Failures (무선센서네트워크 장애에서 센서 데이터 손실 감소를 위한 2MC기반 프레임워크)

  • Shin, DongHyun;Kim, Changhwa
    • Journal of the Korea Society for Simulation
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.31-40
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    • 2016
  • Wireless sensor networks have been used in many applications such as marine environment, army installation, etc. The sensor data is very important, because all these applications depend on sensor data. The possibility of communication failures becomes high since the surrounding environment of a wireless sense network has an sensitive effect on its communications. In particular, communication failures in underwater communications occur more frequently because of a narrow bandwidth, slow transmission speed, noises from the surrounding environments and so on. In cases of communication failures, the sensor data can be lost in the sensor data delivery process and these kinds of sensor data losses can make critical huge physical damages on human or environments in applications such as fire surveillance systems. For this reason, although a few of studies for storing and compressing sensor data have been proposed, there are lots of difficulties in actual realization of the studies due to none-existence of the framework using network communications. In this paper, we propose a framework for reducing loss of the sensor data and analyze its performance. The our analyzed results in non-framework application show a decreasing data recovery rate, T/t, as t time passes after a network failure, where T is a time period to fill the storage with sensor data after the network failure. Moreover, all the sensor data generated after a network failure are the errors impossible to recover. But, on the other hand, the analyzed results in framework application show 100% data recovery rate with 2~6% data error rate after data recovery.

The GR-tree: An Energy-Efficient Distributed Spatial Indexing Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks (GR-tree: 무선 센서 네트워크에서 에너지 효율적인 분산 공간색인기법)

  • Kim, Min-Soo;Jang, In-Sung
    • Spatial Information Research
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.63-74
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    • 2011
  • Recently, there has been much interest in the spatial query which energy-efficiently acquires sensor readings from sensor nodes inside specified geographical area of interests. The centralized approach which performs the spatial query at a server after acquiring all sensor readings, though simple, it incurs high wireless transmission cost in accessing all sensor nodes. In order to remove the high wireless transmission cost, various in-network spatial indexing schemes have been proposed. They have focused on reducing the transmission cost by performing distributed spatial filtering on sensor nodes. However, these in-network spatial indexing schemes have a problem which cannot optimize both the spatial filtering and the wireless routing among sensor nodes, because these schemes have been developed by simply applying the existing spatial indexing schemes into the in-network environment. Therefore, we propose a new distributed spatial indexing scheme of the GR-tree. The GR-tree which form s a MBR-based tree structure, can reduce the wireless transmission cost by optimizing both the efficient spatial filtering and the wireless routing. Finally, we compare the existing spatial indexing scheme through extensive experiments and clarify our approach's distinguished features.

Wireless Water Leak Detection System Using Sensor Networks (센서네트워크를 이용한 무선 누수 탐지 시스템)

  • Choi, Soo-Hwan;Eom, Doo-Seop
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SP
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 2011
  • Water leak detection system is a system based on wireless sensor networks(WSNs) which detect a leak on water supply, localize the leak position and finally inform a water management center. A traditional leak detection method is to use experienced personnel who walk along a pipeline listening to the sound that is generated by the leaks and their effectiveness depend on the experience of the user. Also making more successful detection, it should be processed at middle of the night when people do not use water, as the result users have to operate the leak detection system at midnight. In this paper, we propose a new method for the water leak detection system based on the WSNs and describe it in detail. Leak detection devices which detect a leakage of water transmit and receive the result of water leak detection with each other by configuring WSNs to improve reliability of the detection result. Also, we analyzed the sound from water flowed in pipeline, proposed the pre-signal processing to separate a leakage sound from noisy sound. And lastly, It is especially important to make a time synchronization with water leak detection devices that are installed on the pipeline, we used 1PPS(1 Pulse Per Second) signal generated by GPS, therefore we could get a precise time synchronization. The proposed system set up in Namyangju and performances were evaluated.

Delayed CTS Transmission Scheme for Fairness Enhancement in UWASNs (수중 센서네트워크에서 공평성을 위한 CTS 전송 지연 기법)

  • Lee, Dong-Won;Kim, Sun-Myeng;Yang, Yeon-Mo
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SC
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 2012
  • Underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) employ acoustic channels for communications. One of the main characteristics of the underwater acoustic channel is long propagation delay. Previously proposed MAC (medium access control) protocols for wireless sensor networks cannot be directly used in UWSNs due to the long propagation delay. The long propagation delay and uneven nodes deployments cause spatial fairness in UWSNs. Therefore, a new MAC protocol for UWSNs needs to be developed to provide efficient communications. In this paper, we propose an efficient MAC protocol in order to alleviate the fairness problem. In the proposed scheme, when a node receives a RTS packet, it does not immediately send back but delays a CTS packet. The node collects several RTS packets from source nodes during the delay time. It chooses one of the RTS packets based on the queue status information. And then, it sends a CTS packet to the source node which sent the chosen RTS packet. The performance of the proposed scheme is investigated via simulation. Simulation results show that our scheme is effective and alleviates the fairness problem.

A New Routing Algorithm for Performance improvement of Wireless Sensor Networks (무선 센서 네트워크의 성능 향상을 위한 새로운 라우팅 알고리즘)

  • Yang, Hyun-Suk;Kim, Do-Hyung;Park, Joon-Yeol;Lee, Tae-Bong
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea CI
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.39-45
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    • 2012
  • In this paper, a distributed 2-hop routing algorithm is proposed. The main purpose of the proposed algorithm is to reduce the overall power consumption of each sensor node so that the lifetime of WSN(wireless sensor network) is prolonged. At the beginning of each round, the base station transmits a synchronization signal that contains information on the priority table that is used to decide whether each sensor node is elected as a cluster head or not. The priority table is constructed so that sensor nodes closer to half energy distance from the base station get the higher priority. 2-hop routing is done as follows. Cluster heads inside half energy distance from the base station communicate with the base station directly. Those outside half energy distance have to decide whether they choose 2-hop routing or 1-hop routing. To do this, each cluster head outside half energy distance calculates the energy consumption needed to communicate with the base station via 1-level cluster head or directly. If less energy is needed when passing through the 1-level cluster head, 2-hop routing is chosen and if not, 1-hop routing is chosen. After routing is done each sensor nodes start sensing data.

A Study of Key Pre-distribution Scheme in Hierarchical Sensor Networks (계층적 클러스터 센서 네트워크의 키 사전 분배 기법에 대한 연구)

  • Choi, Dong-Min;Shin, Jian;Chung, Il-Yong
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information Security & Cryptology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.43-56
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    • 2012
  • Wireless sensor networks consist of numerous small-sized nodes equipped with limited computing power and storage as well as energy-limited disposable batteries. In this networks, nodes are deployed in a large given area and communicate with each other in short distances via wireless links. For energy efficient networks, dynamic clustering protocol is an effective technique to achieve prolonged network lifetime, scalability, and load balancing which are known as important requirements. this technique has a characteristic that sensing data which gathered by many nodes are aggregated by cluster head node. In the case of cluster head node is exposed by attacker, there is no guarantee of safe and stable network. Therefore, for secure communications in such a sensor network, it is important to be able to encrypt the messages transmitted by sensor nodes. Especially, cluster based sensor networks that are designed for energy efficient, strongly recommended suitable key management and authentication methods to guarantee optimal stability. To achieve secured network, we propose a key management scheme which is appropriate for hierarchical sensor networks. Proposed scheme is based on polynomial key pool pre-distribution scheme, and sustain a stable network through key authentication process.

An Origin-Centric Communication Scheme to Support Sink Mobility for Continuous Object Detection in IWSNs (산업용 무선 센서망을 이용한 연속개체 탐지에서 이동 싱크 지원을 위한 발원점 중심의 통신방안)

  • Kim, Myung-Eun;Kim, Cheonyong;Yim, Yongbin;Kim, Sang-Ha;Son, Young-Sung
    • KIPS Transactions on Computer and Communication Systems
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    • v.7 no.12
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    • pp.301-312
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    • 2018
  • In industrial wireless sensor networks, the continuous object detection such as fire or toxic gas detection is one of major applications. A continuous object occurs at a specific point and then diffuses over a wide area. Therefore, many studies have focused on accurately detecting a continuous object and delivering data to a static sink with an energy-efficient way. Recently, some applications such as fire suppression require mobile sinks to provide real-time response. However, the sink mobility support in continuous object detection brings challenging issues. The existing approaches supporting sink mobility are designed for individual object detection, so they establish one-to-one communication between a source and a mobile sink for location update. But these approaches are not appropriate for a continuous object detection since a mobile sink should establish one-to-many communication with all sources. The one-to-many communication increases energy consumption and thus shortens the network lifetime. In this paper, we propose the origin-centric communication scheme to support sink mobility in a continuous object detection. Simulation results verify that the proposed scheme surpasses all the other work in terms of energy consumption.