• Title/Summary/Keyword: boundary condition

Search Result 2,028, Processing Time 0.083 seconds

Assessment of Surface Boundary Conditions for Predicting Ground Temperature Distribution (지중온도 변화 예측을 위한 지표면 경계조건 검토)

  • Jang, Changkyu;Choi, Changho;Lee, Chulho;Lee, Jangguen
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
    • /
    • v.29 no.8
    • /
    • pp.75-84
    • /
    • 2013
  • Soil freezing is a phenomenon arising due to temperature difference between atmosphere and ground, and physical properties of soils vary upon the phase change of soil void from liquid to solid (ice). A heat-transfer mechanism for this case can be explained by the conduction in soil layers and the convection on ground surface. Accordingly, the evaluation of proper thermal properties of soils and the convective condition of ground surface is an important task for understanding freezing phenomenon. To describe convection on ground surface, simplified coefficient methods can be applied to deal with various conditions, such as atmospheric temperature, surface vegetation conditions, and soil constituents. In this study, two methods such as n-factor and convection coefficient for the convective ground surface boundary were applied within a commercial numerical program (TEMP/W) for modeling soil freezing phenomenon. Furthermore, the numerical results were compared to laboratory testing results. In the series of the comparison results, the convection coefficient is more appropriate than n-factor method to model the convective boundary condition.

Impact of Boundary Conditions and Cumulus Parameterization Schemes on Regional Climate Simulation over South-Korea in the CORDEX-East Asia Domain Using the RegCM4 Model (CORDEX 동아시아 영역에서 경계조건 및 적운모수화방안이 RegCM4를 이용한 남한 지역 기후모의에 미치는 영향 분석)

  • Oh, Seok-Geun;Suh, Myoung-Seok;Myoung, Ji-Su;Cha, Dong-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
    • /
    • v.32 no.4
    • /
    • pp.373-387
    • /
    • 2011
  • In this study, four types of sensitivity experiments (EG, EE, NG, NE; E: ERA-Interim, N: NCEP/DOE2, G: Grell scheme, E: Emanuel scheme) were performed to evaluate the simulation skills of RegCM4 released in July 2010 over the CORDEX (COordinated Regional Downscaling EXperiment) East Asia domain based on the combinations of boundary conditions (BC: ERA-Interim, NCEP/DOE2) and the cumulus parameterization schemes (CPS: Grell, Emanuel) for the 1989. The surface air temperature and precipitation data observed by the Korea Meteorological Adminstration were used to validate the simulation results over South Korea. The RegCM4 well simulates the seasonal and spatial variations of temperature but it fails to capture the seasonal and spatial variations of precipitation without consideration of the BC and CPS. Especially the simulated summer precipitation amount is significantly less in EG, NG, and NE experiments. But the seasonal variation of precipitation including summer precipitation is relatively well simulated in the EE experiment. The EE experiment shows a better skill in the seasonal march of East Asia summer monsoon, distribution of precipitation intensity and frequency than other experiments. In general, the skills of RegCM4 for temperature and precipitation are better during winter than summer, and in Emanuel than Grell schemes. The simulation results are more impacted by cumulus parameterization schemes than boundary conditions.

Analysis Method for Speeding Risk Exposure using Mobility Trajectory Big Data (대용량 모빌리티 궤적 자료를 이용한 과속 위험노출도 분석 방법론)

  • Lee, Soongbong;Chang, Hyunho;Kang, Taeseok
    • Journal of the Society of Disaster Information
    • /
    • v.17 no.3
    • /
    • pp.655-666
    • /
    • 2021
  • Purpose: This study is to develop a method for measuring dynamic speeding risks using vehicle trajectory big data and to demonstrate the feasibility of the devised speeding index. Method: The speed behaviors of vehicles were analysed in microscopic space and time using individual vehicle trajectories, and then the boundary condition of speeding (i.e., boundary speed) was determined from the standpoint of crash risk. A novel index for measuring the risk exposure of speeding was developed in microscopic space and time with the boundary speed. Result: A validation study was conducted with vehicle-GPS trajectory big data and ground-truth vehicle crash data. As a result of the analysis, it turned out that the index of speeding-risk exposure has a strong explanatory power (R2=0.7) for motorway traffic accidents. This directly indicates that speeding behaviors should be analysed at a microscopic spatiotemporal dimension. Conclusion: The spatial and temporal evolution of vehicle velocity is very variable. It is, hence, expected that the method presented in this study could be efficaciously employed to analyse the causal factors of traffic accidents and the crash risk exposure in microscopic space using mobility trajectory data.

Voronoi Grain-Based Distinct Element Modeling of Thermally Induced Fracture Slip: DECOVALEX-2023 Task G (Benchmark Simulation) (Voronoi 입자기반 개별요소모델을 이용한 암석 균열의 열에 의한 미끄러짐 해석: 국제공동연구 DECOVALEX-2023 Task G(Benchmark simulation))

  • park, Jung-Wook;Park, Chan-Hee;Lee, Changsoo
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
    • /
    • v.31 no.6
    • /
    • pp.593-609
    • /
    • 2021
  • We proposed a numerical method for the thermo-mechanical behavior of rock fracture using a grain-based distinct element model (GBDEM) and simulated thermally induced fracture slip. The present study is the benchmark simulation performed as part of DECOVALEX-2023 Task G, which aims to develop a numerical method to estimate the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes within the crystalline rock fracture network. We represented the rock sample as an assembly of Voronoi grains and calculated the interaction of the grains (blocks) and their interfaces (contacts) using a distinct element code, 3DEC. Based on an equivalent continuum approach, the micro-parameters of grains and contacts were determined to reproduce rock as an elastic material. Then, the behavior of the fracture embedded in the rock was characterized by the contacts with Coulomb shear strength and tensile strength. In the benchmark simulation, we quantitatively examined the effects of the boundary stress and thermal stress due to heat conduction on fracture behavior, focusing on the mechanism of thermally induced fracture slip. The simulation results showed that the developed numerical model reasonably reproduced the thermal expansion and thermal stress increment, the fracture stress and displacement and the effect of boundary condition. We expect the numerical model to be enhanced by continuing collaboration and interaction with other research teams of DECOVALEX-2023 Task G and validated in further study experiments.

Development and Application of Two-Dimensional Numerical Tank using Desingularized Indirect Boundary Integral Equation Method (비특이화 간접경계적분방정식방법을 이용한 2차원 수치수조 개발 및 적용)

  • Oh, Seunghoon;Cho, Seok-kyu;Jung, Dongho;Sung, Hong Gun
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
    • /
    • v.32 no.6
    • /
    • pp.447-457
    • /
    • 2018
  • In this study, a two-dimensional fully nonlinear transient wave numerical tank was developed using a desingularized indirect boundary integral equation method. The desingularized indirect boundary integral equation method is simpler and faster than the conventional boundary element method because special treatment is not required to compute the boundary integral. Numerical simulations were carried out in the time domain using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. A mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian approach was adapted to reconstruct the free surface at each time step. A numerical damping zone was used to minimize the reflective wave in the downstream region. The interpolating method of a Gaussian radial basis function-type artificial neural network was used to calculate the gradient of the free surface elevation without element connectivity. The desingularized indirect boundary integral equation using an isolated point source and radial basis function has no need for information about the element connectivity and is a meshless method that is numerically more flexible. In order to validate the accuracy of the numerical wave tank based on the desingularized indirect boundary integral equation method and meshless technique, several numerical simulations were carried out. First, a comparison with numerical results according to the type of desingularized source was carried out and confirmed that continuous line sources can be replaced by simply isolated sources. In addition, a propagation simulation of a $2^{nd}$-order Stokes wave was carried out and compared with an analytical solution. Finally, simulations of propagating waves in shallow water and propagating waves over a submerged bar were also carried and compared with published data.

Analysis of Interface Problem using the MLS Difference Method with Interface Condition Embedment (계면경계조건이 매입된 이동최소제곱 차분법을 이용한 계면경계문제 해석)

  • Yoon, Young-Cheol
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
    • /
    • v.32 no.4
    • /
    • pp.215-222
    • /
    • 2019
  • The heat conduction problem with discontinuous material coefficients generally consists of the conservative equation, boundary condition, and interface condition, which should be additionally satisfied in the solution procedure. This feature often makes the development of new numerical schemes difficult as it induces a layered singularity in the solution fields; thus, a special approximation is required to capture the singular behavior. In addition to the approximation, the construction of a total system of equations is challenging. In this study, a wedge function is devised for enriching the approximation, and the interface condition itself is embedded in the moving least squares(MLS) derivative approximation to consistently satisfy the interface condition. The heat conduction problem is then discretized in a strong form using the developed derivative approximation, which is named as the interface immersed MLS difference method. This method is able to efficiently provide a numerical solution for such interface problems avoiding both numerical quadrature as well as extra difference equations related to the interface condition enforcement. Numerical experiments proved that the developed numerical method was highly accurate and computationally efficient at solving the heat conduction problem with interfacial jump as well as the problem with a geometrically induced interfacial singularity.

Heat Transfer Modeling by the Contact Condition and the Hole Distance for A-KRS Vertical Disposal (A-KRS 수직 처분공 접촉 조건 및 처분공 간의 거리에 따른 열전달 해석)

  • Kim, Dae-Young;Kim, Seung-Hyun
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
    • /
    • v.17 no.3
    • /
    • pp.313-319
    • /
    • 2019
  • The A-KRS (Advanced Korean Reference Disposal System) is the disposal concept for pyroprocessed waste, which has been developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. In this disposal concept, the amount of high-level radioactive waste is minimized using pyrochemical process, called pyroprocessing. The produced pyroprocessed waste is then solidified in the form of monazite ceramic. The final product of ceramic wastes will be disposed of in a deep geological repository. By the way, the decay heat is generated due to the radioactive decay of fission products and raises the temperature of buffer materials in the near field of radioactive waste repository. However, the buffer temperature must be kept below $100^{\circ}C$ according to the safety regulation. Usually, the temperature can be controlled by variation of the canister interdistance. However, KAERI has modelled thermal analysis under the boundary condition, where the waste canisters are in direct contact with each other. Therefore, a reliable temperature analysis in the disposal system may fail because of unknown thermal resistence values caused by the spatial gap between waste canisters. In the present work, we have performed thermal analyses considering the gap between heating elements and canisters at the beginning of canister loading into the radioactive waste repository. All thermal analyses were performed using the COMSOL software package.

Vibration Mode Measurement Test of External Fuel Tank for Aircraft (항공기용 외부연료탱크 진동모드 측정시험)

  • Kim, Hyun-gi;Choi, Hyun Kyung;Kim, Sungchan;Park, Hyung Bae;An, Su Hong;Kim, Young Shin
    • Journal of Aerospace System Engineering
    • /
    • v.16 no.4
    • /
    • pp.88-94
    • /
    • 2022
  • The vibration mode measurement test measures the natural vibration characteristics of the target specimen. The measured natural mode characteristics are compared with the numerical analysis result to verify the reliability of the numerical analysis. If necessary, it is used to supplement the numerical analysis model of the specimen used for the dynamic characteristic analysis. In this paper, the natural frequency and natural mode of the external fuel tank are respectively obtained through the vibration mode measurement test and the numerical analysis, using the finite element model. The results are compared to verify the reliability of the numerical analysis model of the external fuel tank to apply to the entire aircraft model. To measure the vibration mode of the test specimen, a bungee cord was used, to simulate the free boundary condition for the test specimen. And, 3-axis accelerometers were installed on the test specimen. The response characteristics of the test specimen were measured, by excitation with an impact hammer. As a result of the test, after performing the frequency response analysis on the response acceleration, the natural frequency of the test specimen and its vibration mode were confirmed. The reliability of the numerical analysis model was verified by comparing the frequency and vibration mode, obtained through the test and the numerical analysis.

Analysis of Aquifer Test Data in Fractured Aquifers and the Application of the Generalized Radial Flow (균열암반에서의 양수시험자료 해석과 일반 방사상 유동모델의 적용성 연구)

  • Seong Hyeonjeong;Kim Yongie;Lee Chul-Woo;Kim Kue-Young;Woo Nam-Chil
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
    • /
    • v.38 no.2 s.171
    • /
    • pp.177-185
    • /
    • 2005
  • Data from 122 pumping tests were obtained from 100 boreholes in granites, volcanic rocks, metamorphic rocks, and Cretaceous and Tertiary sedimentary rocks, and then were analyzed using AQTESOLV. Results from 86 of the 122 tests ($71\%$) have an analytical solution corresponding to Theis (1935), Cooper-Jacob (1946), Papadopulos-Cooper (1967), Hantush (1962), Moench (1985), or Hantush-Jacob (1955), whereas the remaining 36 results ($29.5\%$) do not correspond to any of the analytical methods. Of the 86 results, only 17 match the Theis and Cooper-Jacob methods, indicating that the basic methods fer pumping test analysis are useful far only $14\%$ of the total data. This suggests that analytical solutions derived using leaky boundary conditions are appropriate for the analysis of pumping test data in fractured aquifers in this study. Furthermore, the results show the importance of carefully selecting an appropriate model for the analysis of pumping test data. Results from the 122 pumping tests were also analyzed using the GRF model. Using the Barker method, the results show that 77 of the 122 tests ($63\%$) have dimensions ranging between 1.1-2.9. Of these 77 solutions, ($39(44.2{\%})$) have a fractional dimension of 1.1-1.9, ($26(6.5{\%})$) show 2-dimensional radial flow also applicable to the Theis method, and ($38(49.3{\%})$) have dimensions of 2.1-2.9. The results show that groundwater flows according to a fractional flow dimension in fractured aquifers.

The Study on New Radiating Structure with Multi-Layered Two-Dimensional Metallic Disk Array for Shaping flat-Topped Element Pattern (구형 빔 패턴 형성을 위한 다층 이차원 원형 도체 배열을 갖는 새로운 방사 구조에 대한 연구)

  • 엄순영;스코벨레프;전순익;최재익;박한규
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
    • /
    • v.13 no.7
    • /
    • pp.667-678
    • /
    • 2002
  • In this paper, a new radiating structure with a multi-layered two-dimensional metallic disk array was proposed for shaping the flat-topped element pattern. It is an infinite periodic planar array structure with metallic disks finitely stacked above the radiating circular waveguide apertures. The theoretical analysis was in detail performed using rigid full-wave analysis, and was based on modal representations for the fields in the partial regions of the array structure and for the currents on the metallic disks. The final system of linear algebraic equations was derived using the orthogonal property of vector wave functions, mode-matching method, boundary conditions and Galerkin's method, and also their unknown modal coefficients needed for calculation of the array characteristics were determined by Gauss elimination method. The application of the algorithm was demonstrated in an array design for shaping the flat-topped element patterns of $\pm$20$^{\circ}$ beam width in Ka-band. The optimal design parameters normalized by a wavelength for general applications are presented, which are obtained through optimization process on the basis of simulation and design experience. A Ka-band experimental breadboard with symmetric nineteen elements was fabricated to compare simulation results with experimental results. The metallic disks array structure stacked above the radiating circular waveguide apertures was realized using ion-beam deposition method on thin polymer films. It was shown that the calculated and measured element patterns of the breadboard were in very close agreement within the beam scanning range. The result analysis for side lobe and grating lobe was done, and also a blindness phenomenon was discussed, which may cause by multi-layered metallic disk structure at the broadside. Input VSWR of the breadboard was less than 1.14, and its gains measured at 29.0 GHz. 29.5 GHz and 30 GHz were 10.2 dB, 10.0 dB and 10.7 dB, respectively. The experimental and simulation results showed that the proposed multi-layered metallic disk array structure could shape the efficient flat-topped element pattern.