• Title/Summary/Keyword: texturing

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A effect of the back contact silicon solar cell with surface texturing size and density (표면 텍스쳐링 크기와 밀도가 후면 전극 실리콘 태양전지에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Wanggeun;Jang, Yunseok;Pak, Jungho
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.112.1-112.1
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    • 2011
  • The back contact solar cell (BCSC) has several advantages compared to the conventional solar cell since it can reduce grid shadowing loss and contact resistance between the electrode and the silicon substrate. This paper presents the effect of the surface texturing of the silicon BCSC by varying the texturing depth or the texturing gap in the commercially available simulation software, ATHENA and ATLAS of the company SILVACO. The texturing depth was varied from $5{\mu}m$ to $150{\mu}m$ and the texturing gap was varied from $1{\mu}m$ to $100{\mu}m$ in the simulation. The resulting efficiency of the silicon BCSC was evaluated depending on the texturing condition. The quantum efficiency and the I-V curve of the designed silicon BCSC was also obtained for the analysis since they are closely related with the solar cell efficiency. Other parameters of the simulated silicon BCSC are as follows. The substrate was an n-type silicon, which was doped with phosphorous at $6{\times}10^{15}cm^{-3}$, and its thickness was $180{\mu}m$, a typical thickness of commercial solar cell substrate thickness. The back surface field (BSF) was $1{\times}10^{20}\;cm^{-3}$ and the doping concentration of a boron doped emitter was $8.5{\times}10^{19}\;cm^{-3}$. The pitch of the silicon BCSC was $1250{\mu}m$ and the anti-reflection coating (ARC) SiN thickness was $0.079{\mu}m$. It was assumed that the texturing was anisotropic etching of crystalline silicon, resulting in texturing angle of 54.7 degrees. The best efficiency was 25.6264% when texturing depth was $50{\mu}m$ with zero texturing gap in case of low texturing depth (< $100{\mu}m$).

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SF6/O2 가스를 이용한 다결정 실리콘 웨이퍼 RIE Texturing이 제작된 태양전지 동작특성에 미치는 영향

  • Park, Gwang-Muk;Lee, Myeong-Bok;Jeong, Ji-Hui;Bae, So-Ik;Choe, Si-Yeong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.395-396
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    • 2011
  • 본 논문에서는 30% 내외의 평균반사율을 가지는 다결정 실리콘 태양전지의 입사광 손실을 최소화하여 광전변환효율 극대화를 구현하기 위해서 SF6/O2 혼합가스를 이용한 RIE 표면 texturing 공정을 수행하였다. 현재 다결정 실리콘 태양전지는 다양한 방향의 grain을 가지기 때문에 단결정 실리콘에 적용되는 습식 식각 방식이 다결정 실리콘 표면 texturing에 적절하지 않은 것으로 알려져 있다. 이를 개선하기 위해서 이방성 식각 특성을 가지는 다양한 texturing 방법이 시도되고 있다. 대표적으로 기계적인 방식의 V-grooving, 레이저 grooving, 플라즈마 건식식각을 이용한 texturing 및 산 용액을 이용한 texturing 등의 연구가 보고되고 있다. 그 중에서 플라즈마 건식식각 방식의 하나인 RIE를 이용한 표면 texturing 공정이 간단한 공정과 산업계 응용의 용이성 때문에 활발히 연구되어 왔다. 특히 Sandia group과 일본 Kyocera사의 연구 결과에서는 그 가능성을 입증하고 있다. 본 연구에서는 공정의 단순화와 안전한 공정을 위해서 SF6/O2 혼합 가스를 이용하여 마스크 패턴 공정없이 RIE texturing 공정을 수행하였으며, RIE-textured 다결정 실리콘에 대해서 태양전지를 제작하여 표면 texturing이 광전변환효율에 미치는 영향에 대해서 분석하였다. 그 결과 SF6/O2 혼합 가스를 이용한 RIE texturing은 다결정 실리콘 표면에 주로 needle 구조를 형성하는 것을 확인하였다. 각 texturing 조건별 반사율의 차이는 needle 구조의 조밀도와 관련되는 것을 알 수 있었으며, 동일 공정 parameter 상에서 식각 시간 1, 2, 3, 4, 5분 기준 시간에 따른 표면 구조 분석 결과 seed 가 형성되고 그에 따라서 needle 형태로 식각되는 과정을 관찰하였다. 반사율은 분당 약 4%씩 낮아져 5분 식각 후 14.45% 까지 낮아졌으며, 표면 구조에서 폭은 약 30 nm로 모두 일정하며, 길이가 약 20, 30, 50, 80, 100 nm으로 증가되었다. 이 결과로 보아 seed로부터 needle 구조가 심화되어가는 것을 알 수 있었다. 시간에 따른 RIE texturing 후 제작된 태양전지는 효율이 1분 식각 기준 15.92%에서 약 0.35% 씩 낮아져 5분 식각 후 14.4%로 낮아졌다. Voc 는 texturing 시간에 관계없이 일정하며 Isc가 점점 감소되는 것으로 확인되었다. EQE 결과도 이와 동일하게 RIE texturing 시간이 길어질수록 전체 파장 범위에서 일정하게 낮아지는 것이 관찰되었다. Electroluminescence(EL) 이미지 결과 texturing 시간이 길어진 태양전지일수록 점점 어두운 이미지가 나타나 5분 식각의 경우 가장 어두운 결과를 나타내었다. 이런 결과는 한 가지 이유보다는 복합적인 문제로 예상되는데 궁극적으로는 RIE 공정 후 표면에 쌓인 charged particle들이 trap 준위를 형성하여 효율 및 공정상에 영향을 미친 것으로 보이며, 특히 잔류 O기가 불균일한 산화막을 형성하는 것으로 예상된다. 또한 EL 분석 결과를 볼 때 RIE texturing 공정이 길어질수록 불안정한 pn-junction을 형성하는 것을 확인하였으며, emitter 층 형성 후 PSG (phosphorous silica glass) 공정에서 needle의 상부 구조가 무너지면서 면저항이 증가된 결과로 분석된다. PSG 제거 후 측정된 면저항의 경우 3분 texturing 샘플부터 면저항이 약 4${\Omega}/sq$ 정도 증가됨을 확인하였다.

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Surface Reflectance Reduction of Multicrystalline Silicon Wafers for Solar Cells by Acid Texturing (Acid Texturing에 의한 태양전지용 다결정 실리콘 기판의 표면 반사율 감소)

  • Kim, Ji-Sun;Kim, Bum-Ho;Lee, Soo-Hong
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.99-103
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    • 2008
  • To improve efficiency of solar cells, it is important to make a light trapping structure to reduce surface reflectance for increasing absorption of sun light within the solar cells. One of the promising methods that can reduce surface reflectance is isotropic texturing with acid solution based on hydrofluoric acid(HF), nitric acid($HNO_3$), and organic additives. Anisotropic texturing with alkali solution is not suitable for multicrystalline silicon wafers because of its different grain orientation. Isotropic texturing with acid solution can uniformly etch multicrystalline silicon wafers unrelated with grain orientation, so we can get low surface reflectance. In this paper, the acid texturing solution is made up of only HF and $HNO_3$ for easy controlling the concentration and low cost compared to acid solution with organic additives. $HNO_3$ concentration and dipping time were varied to find the condition of minimum surface reflectance. Textured surfaces were observed Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM) and surface reflectance were measured. The best result of arithmetic mean(wavelength from 400 nm to 1000 nm) reflectance with acid texturing is 4.64 % less than alkali texturing.

Investigation of Surface Reflectance Reduction for Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells with Acid Texturing (Acid Texturing에 의한 다결정 실리콘 태양전지의 표면 반사율 감소에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Ji-Sun;Kim, Bum-Ho;Lee, Eun-Joo;Lee, Soo-Hong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.16-17
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    • 2007
  • To improve efficiency of solar cells, it is important to make a light trapping structure to reduce surface reflectance for increasing absorption of sun light within the solar cells. One of the promising methods that can reduce surface reflectance is isotropic texturing with acid solution based on hydrofluoric acid(HF), nitric acid($HNO_3$), and organic additives. Anisotropic texturing with alkali solution is not suitable for multicrystalline silicon wafers because of its different grain orientation. Isotropic texturing with acid solution can uniformly etch multicrystalline silicon wafers unrelated with grain orientation, so we can get low surface reflectance. In this paper, the acid texturing solution is made up of only HF and $HNO_3$ for easy controling the concentration and low cost compared to acid solution with organic additives. $HNO_3$ concentration and dipping time were varied to find the condition of minimum surface reflectance. Textured surfaces were observed Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM) and surface reflectance were measured. The best result of arithmetic mean(wavelength from 400nm to 1000nm) reflectance with acid texturing is 4.64% less than alkali texturing.

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Tribological performance of the laser surface treated CrZrSiN thin films

  • Kim, DongJun;La, JoungHyun;Lee, SangYul
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • pp.141-142
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    • 2012
  • Recently, surface texturing by atmospheric laser processing has been received lots of attention to improve the tribological performance of various surfaces and this laser texturing of surfaces could be considered in a large extent to improve tribological performance of PVD coated surface. Surface texturing could be performed by various manufacturing techniques such as indentation with hard materials, ion etching, abrasive jet machining, lithography, and Laser Surface Texturing (LST). Out of all these techniques, however it is generally accepted that laser surface texturing (LST) by atmospheric laser processing offers the most promising process as LST is very fast, environmentally-friendly, easy to control the shape and size of the microdimples. In this work various preliminary experimental results from the laser texturing on the PVD-coated steel substrate will be presented. Our results indicated that laser texturing definitely affect the tribological performance of the surfaces and the size as well as pattern type of laser texturing are one of the key factors. From the wear tests against an alumina counterpart ball at room temperature under oil-lubricated condition, laser surface texturing on the CrZrSiN films reduced the friction coefficients by approximately more than 5 times in the case of narrow patterned surfaces.

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A Study of the Thermal Characteristics of a Photovoltaic Device with Surface Texturization (표면 Texturization을 가진 Photovoltaic Device 내부의 열 분포 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Ji-Chul;Moon, Kyoung-Sook;Koo, Sang-Mo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.509-512
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    • 2010
  • The thermal distribution of 2D and 3D p-n photovoltaic diode structures with and without surface texturing has been studied. By analysis of the numerical simulation results of the I-V characteristics and lattice temperature distributions the effect of different texturing structures on the characteristics of silicon p-n photovoltaic devices has been studied systematically. The efficiency of the device having surface texturing shows more than ~2% enhancement compared to the reference devices which did not have texturing. In addition, the effect of the density of the texturing groove has been studied and it has been confirmed that the texturing structure not only improves the light trapping but also plays an important role in the heat radiation.

Two Step Surface Texturing of Silicon Wafers using Micro Blaster (마이크로 블라스터를 이용한 실리콘 웨이퍼의 2단계 표면 텍스쳐링)

  • Cho, Chan-Seob;Jung, Sang-Hoon
    • Journal of the Semiconductor & Display Technology
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.5-9
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    • 2010
  • Recently, the important issues of solar cell are low cost and high efficiency. Making low cost and high efficiency solar cell, there are many effects to development of inexpensive wafer, simplify process and improve optical, electrical properties. In this the study, the 2 step texturing method using micro blaster was developed to decrease reflection of incident lights. Air bridge electrode structure is suggested to expand the effective surface area and decrease the series resistance of finger electrode. The effects of 1 step texturing and 2 step texturing by micro blaster are compared. Reflectance of 1 step and 2 step texturing are measured 28.7% and 25.5%, respectively. The reflectance of 2 step texturing sample is lower about 3.2% than 1 step textured sample.

RIE Damage Remove Etching Process for Solar Cell Surface Texturing Using the TMAH Etching

  • O, Jeong-Hwa;Gong, Dae-Yeong;Jo, Jun-Hwan;Jo, Chan-Seop;Yun, Seong-Ho;Lee, Jong-Hyeon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.584-584
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    • 2012
  • 결정형 실리콘 태양전지 공정 중 표면 texturing 공정은 표면에 요철을 형성시켜 반사되는 빛 손실을 줄여서, 증가된 빛 흡수 양에 의해 단락전류(Isc)를 증가시키는데 그 목적이 있다. 표면 texturing 공정은 습식 식각과 건식 식각에 의한 방법으로 나눌 수 있다. 습식 식각은 KOH, TMAH, HNA 등의 실리콘 식각 용액을 사용하여 공정상의 위험도가 크고, 사용 후 용액의 폐기물에 의한 환경오염 문제가 있다. 건식 식각은 습식 식각과 달리 폐기물의 처리가 없고 미량의 가스를 이용한다. 그리고 다결정 실리콘 웨이퍼처럼 불규칙적인 결정방향에도 영향을 받지 않는 장점을 가지고 있어서 건식 식각을 이용한 표면 texturing 공정에 관한 많은 연구가 진행되고 있으며, 특히 RIE(reactive ion etching)를 이용한 태양전지 texturing 공정이 가장 주목을 받고 있다. 하지만 기존의 RIE를 이용하여 표면 texturing 공정을 하게 되면 500 nm 이하의 needle-like 구조의 표면이 만들어진다. Needle-like 구조의 표면은 전극을 형성할 때에 접촉 면적이 좁기 때문에 adhesion이 좋지 않은 것과 단파장 대역에서 광 손실이 많다는 단점이 있다. 본 논문에서는 기존의 RIE texturing의 단점을 보완하기 위해 챔버 내부에 metal-mesh를 장착한 후 RIE를 이용하여 $1{\mu}m$의 피라미드 구조를 형성하였고, RIE 공정 시 ion bombardment에 의한 표면 손상을 제거(RIE damage remove etching)하기 위하여 10초간 TMAH(Tetramethyl -ammonium hydroxide, 25 %) 식각 공정을 하였다.

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Laser texturing on the surface for improvement of multi-crystalline solar cells (다결정 태양 전지 효율 향상 위한 Laser 표면 texturing)

  • Kim, Tae-Hoon;Kim, Sun-Young;Ko, Ji-Soo;Park, Hyun-Ho;Kim, Kwang-Ryul;Jo, Chang-Hyun;Shin, Sung-Wook;Choi, Byoung-Deog
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.364-364
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    • 2009
  • The solar cell is in the spotlight as a future green energy source. In the solar cells based on silicon wafer, the improvement of efficiency is one of crucial issues. One of techniques for high efficiency is texturing on the surface of solar cells. We studied the laser texturing on the surface of multi-crystalline silicon solar cells. The laser texturing followed by chemical etching is adequate for the multi-crystalline structure which have random crystallographic directions. We used the fiber laser for texturing and the SiNx as a masking layer for etching process. We investigated the shapes of holes for texturing in the various laser power conditions and analyzed the holes after removal of thermal damages caused by laser ablation through a 3D profiler.

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Effect On Glass Texturing For Enhancement of Light Trapping in Perovskite Solar Cells

  • Kim, Dong In;Nam, Sang-Hun;Hwang, Ki-Hwan;Lee, Yong-Min;Boo, Jin-Hyo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.387.2-387.2
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    • 2016
  • Glass texturing is a sufficient method for changing the surface morphology to enhance the light trapping. In this study, glass texturing was applied to the perovskite solar cell for improving the current density. Glass substrates (back-side glass of FTO coated glass substrate) were textured by randomly structure assisted wet etching process using diluted HF solution at a constant concentration of etchants (HF:H2O=1:1). Then, the light trapping properties of suitable films were controlled over a wide range by varying the etching time (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 min.). The surface texturing changed the reflected light in an angle that it can be reflected by substrate glass surface. As a result, Current density and cell efficiency were affected by light trapping layer using glass texturing method in perovskite solar cells.

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